International Scholarly Research Notices / 2014 / Article / Tab 6

Research Article

Safety Evaluation of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Rhizome Extract: Acute and Chronic Toxicity Studies in Rats

Table 6

Clinical chemistry parameters of rats treated with Z. cassumunar extract granules in chronic oral toxicity studya.

ParameterDose (mg/kg bw/d)
00.33.03030b11.25112.51,1251,125b

Female
 GLU (mg/dL)127.90 ± 3.55131.60 ± 4.00131.60 ± 3.43128.30 ± 4.26133.90 ± 4.65124.90 ± 7.80125.60 ± 18.45124.00 ± 4.36129.80 ± 10.24
 BUN (mg/dL)21.50 ± 0.8724.00 ± 0.79*23.40 ± 0.7023.00 ± 0.8321.60 ± 0.6521.93 ± 0.3525.17 ± 3.27*23.00 ± 0.6820.14 ± 1.07
 CRE (mg/dL)0.45 ± 0.020.47 ± 0.030.42 ± 0.020.43 ± 0.020.41 ± 0.010.43 ± 0.020.44 ± 0.020.42 ± 0.020.46 ± 0.01
 TP (g/dL)6.21 ± 0.106.10 ± 0.106.28 ± 0.176.02 ± 0.175.88 ± 0.08*6.10 ± 0.106.28 ± 0.176.02 ± 0.175.68 ± 0.08*
 ALB (g/dL)4.31 ± 0.074.19 ± 0.074.23 ± 0.144.09 ± 0.133.88 ± 0.06*4.29 ± 0.004.18 ± 0.01*4.39 ± 0.004.16 ± 0.02*
 T-BIL (mg/dL)0.26 ± 0.020.24 ± 0.020.23 ± 0.010.23 ± 0.010.29 ± 0.010.13 ± 0.020.15 ± 0.020.11 ± 0.020.10 ± 0.01
 D-BIL (mg/dL)0.01 ± 0.010.02 ± 0.010.00 ± 0.000.01 ± 0.010.01 ± 0.010.13 ± 0.020.15 ± 0.020.11 ± 0.020.10 ± 0.01
 SGOT (U/L)172.20 ± 10.51229.90 ± 29.41*156.60 ± 11.94223.40 ± 21.15*184.20 ± 10.86181.80 ± 24.26185.20 ± 17.43162.70 ± 18.24240.90 ± 33.25*
 SGPT (U/L)51.50 ± 5.2856.60 ± 12.6551.30 ± 3.8850.30 ± 21.7653.70 ± 4.9052.20 ± 5.5055.60 ± 6.3252.20 ± 6.7777.90 ± 10.29*
 ALP (U/L)34.20 ± 1.5731.60 ± 1.8531.30 ± 1.6430.00 ± 2.1933.30 ± 1.6827.20 ± 2.41*33.30 ± 3.6234.80 ± 1.5231.40 ± 3.79
Male
 GLU (mg/dL)135.20 ± 2.46131.50 ± 2.76138.30 ± 3.36131.20 ± 3.16136.00 ± 3.34125.00 ± 1.76126.10 ± 3.61129.30 ± 4.62124.10 ± 4.90
 BUN (mg/dL)20.20 ± 0.5121.90 ± 1.4621.90 ± 0.7421.40 ± 1.0520.70 ± 0.8022.00 ± 0.8019.90 ± 0.6220.40 ± 0.6219.10 ± 0.82
 CRE (mg/dL)0.40 ± 0.020.40 ± 0.020.41 ± 0.030.42 ± 0.020.40 ± 0.030.40 ± 0.020.36 ± 0.020.36 ± 0.020.36 ± 0.02
 TP (g/dL)6.03 ± 0.136.17 ± 0.086.19 ± 0.056.15 ± 0.105.72 ± 0.08*6.36 ± 0.066.54 ± 0.076.39 ± 0.096.54 ± 0.14
 ALB (g/dL)3.70 ± 0.073.71 ± 0.063.75 ± 0.033.74 ± 0.073.61 ± 0.06 3.68 ± 0.053.75 ± 0.043.70 ± 0.043.92 ± 0.07
 T-BIL (mg/dL)0.21 ± 0.020.19 ± 0.010.20 ± 0.000.18 ± 0.010.23 ± 0.010.23 ± 0.020.22 ± 0.010.23 ± 0.020.21 ± 0.01
 D-BIL (mg/dL)0.02 ± 0.010.00 ± 0.000.01 ± 0.010.00 ± 0.000.01 ± 0.010.00 ± 0.00.00 ± 0.000.01 ± 0.010.00 ± 0.00
 SGOT (U/L)174.80 ± 14.62191.90 ± 18.66183.20 ± 13.41206.00 ± 27.19157.20 ± 26.97179.90 ± 7.20173.40 ± 14.34175.60 ± 10.38194.10 ± 22.75
 SGPT (U/L)56.60 ± 4.0850.40 ± 2.6257.90 ± 3.6762.80 ± 9.1369.10 ± 15.5852.00 ± 4.2753.90 ± 5.5154.20 ± 4.3966.40 ± 8.71
 ALP (U/L) 49.40 ± 2.2755.00 ± 2.2655.80 ± 2.1755.10 ± 1.7050.50 ± 3.6643.50 ± 1.5853.40 ± 2.9450.10 ± 1.6849.70 ± 1.93

Values are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 10 for each group).
bSatellite groups were treated with Z. cassumunar extract granules at the indicated dose for 270 days followed by no treatment for 28 days.
values < 0.05, compared to the corresponding control.
GLU, glucose; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; CRE, creatinine; TP, total protein; ALB, albumin; T-BIL, total bilirubin; D-BIL, direct bilirubin; SGOT, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase; SGPT, serum glutamine-pyruvic transaminase; ALP, alkaline phosphatase.

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