Table of Contents
ISRN Pharmaceutics
Volume 2014, Article ID 647174, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/647174
Research Article

Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum

1H.S.B.P.V.T. Group of Institutions, College of Pharmacy, Kashti, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra 414701, India
2Bhagwan College of Pharmacy, Aurangabad, Maharashtra 431001, India

Received 24 September 2013; Accepted 16 January 2014; Published 4 March 2014

Academic Editors: K. R. Mahadik and Y. Murata

Copyright © 2014 Sudarshan Singh and Sunil B. Bothara. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441 cm−1 (–OH), 1660 cm−1 (Alkenyl C–H & C=C Stretch), 1632 cm−1 (–COO–), 1414 cm−1 (–COO–), and 1219 cm−1 (–CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose.