Table of Contents
International Scholarly Research Notices
Volume 2014, Article ID 695272, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/695272
Research Article

Evaluation of Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory Activities, and Safety of Ethanol Extract and Fractions of Gongronema latifolium Fruit

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State 420281, Nigeria

Received 11 March 2014; Revised 29 July 2014; Accepted 13 August 2014; Published 29 October 2014

Academic Editor: Marie Aleth Lacaille-Dubois

Copyright © 2014 Amanze Agwaramgbo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Gongronema latifolium fruit has wide application in ethnomedicine, especially in maintaining healthy living and general body healing. We therefore investigated the antioxidant, immunomodulatory activities, and safety of its ethanol extract and fractions. The in vitro antioxidant activities of the extract and fractions were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test while in vivo activities were determined using carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) induced oxidative stress. Cell and humoral mediated immune responses were also evaluated together with toxicity studies. The extract, ethyl acetate, and methanol fractions showed inhibition of DPPH radical with IC50s 120, 90, and 60 g/mL, respectively. Methanol fraction at 200 mg/kg produced significant () inhibition of lipid peroxidation (MDA conc. 1.2 μmol/L) compared to control (2.8 mol/L). Both ethyl acetate and methanol fractions at 200 mg/kg produced significant () phagocytic index of 0.021 and 0.025, respectively, compared with control (0.01). Significant () elevations of white blood cells, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were noticed on the 91st day at higher doses. Generally, this study justified the traditional use of G. latifolium fruit for general body healing and maintenance of healthy living. Long term administration is safe on the haematological and biochemical systems especially at lower doses and its toxicity at higher doses is reversible.