Table of Contents
ISRN Pediatrics
Volume 2014, Article ID 714234, 5 pages
Research Article

Heavy Metal Levels in Adolescent and Maternal Blood: Association with Risk of Hypospadias

1Environmental Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, University College of Medical Sciences & GTB Hospital, University of Delhi, Dilshad Garden, Delhi 110095, India
2Department of Pediatrics, University College of Medical Sciences & GTB Hospital, University of Delhi, Dilshad Garden, Delhi 110095, India
3Department of Environmental Studies, Delhi University, Delhi 110007, India

Received 17 December 2013; Accepted 20 January 2014; Published 4 March 2014

Academic Editors: H. Rice and M. Sánchez-Solís

Copyright © 2014 Tusha Sharma et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Hypospadias is a part of testicular digenesis syndrome (TDS) which includes infertility, cryptorchidism, and spermatogenesis. Heavy metals act as endocrine disrupting compounds. Heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, arsenic, and lead have been associated with male infertility, cryptorchidism, spermatogenesis, cancer, reproductive disorder, and neurological disorder. However, it remains an important issue to corroborate or refute the hypothesis that the role of heavy metals in male reproductive tract disorders. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the possible association of heavy metal and risk of hypospadias by estimating the blood heavy metal levels. Methods. In this case control study, 50 hypospadias boys diagnosed and confirmed by a pediatric urologist and 50 randomly selected age-matched (1–5 years) healthy control boys not suffering from any clinically detectible illness and their mothers have been included and heavy metal levels in the blood of these subjects have been estimated by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Result. Significantly high levels of cadmium and lead have been observed in hypospadias cases; however, all heavy metal levels were present in higher concentration. Conclusion. Higher blood levels of cadmium and lead may be associated with the increased risk of hypospadias.