Table of Contents
International Scholarly Research Notices
Volume 2014, Article ID 745439, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/745439
Review Article

The Role of Magnesium in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Glaucoma

1Department of Ophthalmology, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Medical School, 53020 Rize, Turkey
2Department of Ophthalmology, Duzce State Hospital, 81100 Duzce, Turkey
3Department of Ophthalmology, Sorgun State Hospital, 66700 Yozgat, Turkey
4Department of Ophthalmology, Yatağan State Hospital, 48500 Muğla, Turkey
5Department of Ophthalmology, Onsekizmart University Medical School, 17020 Canakkale, Turkey
6Department of Ophthalmology, Gazi University Medical School, 06560 Ankara, Turkey
7Department of Medical Pharmacology, Gazi University Medical School, 06560 Ankara, Turkey

Received 19 April 2014; Revised 25 June 2014; Accepted 16 July 2014; Published 13 October 2014

Academic Editor: Paolo Fogagnolo

Copyright © 2014 Feyzahan Ekici et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Glaucoma is characterized by chronic optic neuropathy resulting in progressive vision loss. Not only is glaucoma considered as a condition of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), but also other risk factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Vascular dysregulation in ocular blood flow and oxidative stress are currently suggested as important risk factors for glaucomatous retinal ganglion cell loss. New treatment modalities that improve ocular blood flow and reduce oxidative stress have been investigated in many studies. Magnesium (Mg) is thought to be one of the molecules that has a treatment potential in glaucoma. Mg has been shown to improve blood flow by modifying endothelial function via endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) pathways. Mg also exhibits neuroprotective role by blocking N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-related calcium influx and by inhibiting the release of glutamate, and hence protects the cell against oxidative stress and apoptosis. Both improvement in ocular blood flow and prevention of ganglion cell loss would make magnesium a good candidate for glaucoma management. Further studies on the effect of Mg may open a new therapeutic era in glaucoma.