Table 2: Serum levels of liver and kidney function biomarkers.

ParameterUnitsControl group
( )
Cd group
( )
Cd + CAPE group
( )

ASTIU/L 571.33 ± 72.29* 163.00 ± 14.93#
ALT IU/L 136.07 ± 21.06* 73.33 ± 11.35#
ALPIU/L 274.33 ± 25.14* 211.33 ± 17.35#
ALB g/dL 2.86 ± 0.38* 4.01 ± 0.27#
CREmg/dL 0.41 ± 0.34* 0.29 ± 0.01#
BUNmg/dL 63.65 ± 13.44* 49.22 ± 10.10#

The values are presented as means ± SD. (Cd) cadmium, (CAPE) caffeic acid phenyl ester, (AST) aspartate aminotransferase, (ALT) alanine aminotransferase, (ALP) alkaline phosphatase (ALP), (ALB) albumin, (CRE) creatinine, and (BUN) blood urea nitrogen. * versus control group; # versus Cd group.