Table of Contents
ISRN Pharmacology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 784019, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/784019
Research Article

Preventive Effects of a Kampo Medicine, Kakkonto, on Inflammatory Responses via the Suppression of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Phosphorylation in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Human Gingival Fibroblasts

1Department of Hard Tissue Research, Graduate School of Oral Medicine, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, Nagano 399-0781, Japan
2Institute for Oral Science, Graduate School of Oral Medicine, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, Nagano 399-0781, Japan
3Department of Pharmacology, Matsumoto Dental University, 1780 Gobara, Hirooka, Shiojiri, Nagano 399-0781, Japan

Received 30 November 2013; Accepted 8 January 2014; Published 18 February 2014

Academic Editors: A. Pittaluga and E. M. Urbanska

Copyright © 2014 Hiroyuki Kitamura et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. Noguchi and I. Ishikawa, “The roles of cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 in periodontal disease,” Periodontology 2000, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 85–101, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. M. Bartold and D. R. Haynes, “Interleukin-6 production by human gingival fibroblasts,” Journal of Periodontal Research, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 339–345, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. H. Takada, J. Mihara, I. Morisaki, and S. Hamada, “Induction of interleukin-1 and -6 in human gingival fibroblast cultures stimulated with Bacteroides lipopolysaccharides,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 295–301, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. H. Okada and S. Murakami, “Cytokine expression in periodontal health and disease,” Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 248–266, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. T. Ara, Y. Maeda, Y. Fujinami, Y. Imamura, T. Hattori, and P. L. Wang, “Preventive effects of a Kampo medicine, Shosaikoto, on inflammatory responses in LPS-treated human gingival fibroblasts,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1141–1144, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Y. Nakazono, T. Ara, Y. Fujinami, T. Hattori, and P. L. Wang, “Preventive effects of a kampo medicine, hangeshashinto on inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide-treated human gingival fibroblasts,” Journal of Hard Tissue Biology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 43–50, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. Ara, K. Honjo, Y. Fujinami, T. Hattori, Y. Imamura, and P. L. Wang, “Preventive effects of a kampo medicine, orento on inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide treated human gingival fibroblasts,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 611–616, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Y. Ozaki, “Studies on antiinflammatory effect of Japanese oriental medicines (Kampo medicines) used to treat inflammatory diseases,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 559–562, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. Yamamoto, K. Fujiwara, M. Yoshida et al., “Therapeutic effect of kakkonto in a mouse model of food allergy with gastrointestinal symptoms,” International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, vol. 148, no. 3, pp. 175–185, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. Nagasaka, M. Kurokawa, M. Imakita, K. Terasawa, and K. Shiraki, “Efficacy of Kakkon-to, a traditional herb medicine, in herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in mice,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 28–34, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Kurokawa, M. Tsurita, J. Brown, Y. Fukuda, and K. Shiraki, “Effect of interleukin-12 level augmented by Kakkon-to, a herbal medicine, on the early stage of influenza infection in mice,” Antiviral Research, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 183–188, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. S. Wu, H. R. Yen, C. W. Chang et al., “Mechanism of action of the suppression of influenza virus replication by Ko-Ken Tang through inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway and viral RNP nuclear export,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 134, no. 3, pp. 614–623, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. S. Chang, K. C. Wang, D. E. Shieh, F. F. Hsu, and L. C. Chiang, “Ge-Gen-Tang has anti-viral activity against human respiratory syncytial virus in human respiratory tract cell lines,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 139, no. 1, pp. 305–310, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Kutsuwa, N. Nakahata, M. Kubo, K. Hayashi, and Y. Ohizumi, “A comparative study of Kakkon-to and Keishi-to on prostaglandin E2 release from rabbit astrocytes,” Phytomedicine, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 275–282, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. J. Sismey-Durrant and R. M. Hopps, “Effect of lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis on prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-1-β release from rat periosteal and human gingival fibroblasts in vitro,” Oral Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 378–380, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Tamura, M. Tokuda, S. Nagaoka, and H. Takada, “Lipopolysaccharides of Bacteroides intermedius (Prevotella intermedia) and Bacteroides (Porphyromonas) gingivalis induce interleukin-8 gene expression in human gingival fibroblast cultures,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 4932–4937, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. T. Ara, Y. Fujinami, Y. Imamura, and P. L. Wang, “Lipopolysaccharide-treated human gingival fibroblasts continuously produce PGE2,” Journal of Hard Tissue Biology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 121–124, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. T. Ara, K. Kurata, K. Hirai et al., “Human gingival fibroblasts are critical in sustaining inflammation in periodontal disease,” Journal of Periodontal Research, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 21–27, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. C. Gupta, M. Katsumata, A. S. Goldman, R. Herold, and R. Piddington, “Glucocorticoid-induced phospholipase A2-inhibitory proteins mediate glucocorticoid teratogenicity in vitro,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 81, no. 4 I, pp. 1140–1143, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. B. P. Wallner, R. J. Mattaliano, C. Hession et al., “Cloning and expression of human lipocortin, a phospholipase A2 inhibitor with potential anti-inflammatory activity,” Nature, vol. 320, no. 6057, pp. 77–81, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. L. L. Lin, M. Wartmann, A. Y. Lin, J. L. Knopf, A. Seth, and R. J. Davis, “cPLA2 is phosphorylated and activated by MAP kinase,” Cell, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 269–278, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. A. Gijón, D. M. Spencer, A. L. Kaiser, and C. C. Leslie, “Role of phosphorylation sites and the C2 domain in regulation of cytosolic phospholipase A2,” Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 145, no. 6, pp. 1219–1232, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. T. Ara, Y. Fujinami, H. Urano, K. Hirai, T. Hattori, and H. Miyazawa, “Protein kinase A enhances lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2 production by human gingival fibroblasts,” Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine, vol. 11, article 10, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. Kamemoto, T. Ara, T. Hattori, Y. Fujinami, Y. Imamura, and P. L. Wang, “Macrolide antibiotics like azithromycin increase lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-8 production by human gingival fibroblasts,” European Journal of Medical Research, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 309–314, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. E. Salvi and N. P. Lang, “Host response modulation in the management of periodontal diseases,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 108–129, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. Offenbacher, D. H. Farr, and J. M. Goodson, “Measurement of prostaglandin E in crevicular fluid,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 359–367, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. M. Abramson, L. F. Wolff, S. Offenbacher, D. M. Aeppli, N. D. Hardie, and H. M. Friedman, “Flurbiprofen effect on gingival crevicular fluid prostaglandin and thromboxane levels in humans,” Journal of Periodontal Research, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 539–543, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. K. Jeffcoat, M. S. Reddy, S. Haigh et al., “A comparison of topical ketorolac, systemic flurbiprofen, and placebo for the inhibition of bone loss in adult periodontitis,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 329–338, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus