Table of Contents
ISRN Urology
Volume 2014, Article ID 802328, 4 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/802328
Clinical Study

Noninvasive Electromagnetic Detection of Bladder Cancer

1Department of Urology and Renal Transplantation, University of Foggia, Viale Luigi Pinto 1, 71121 Foggia, Italy
2Italian Navy, Viale S. Bartolomeo 400, 19138 La Spezia, Italy
3Department of Urology, Vito Fazzi Hospital, Piazza F. Muratore, 73100 Lecce, Italy

Received 1 October 2013; Accepted 20 October 2013; Published 16 January 2014

Academic Editors: P.-L. Chang, A. Natali, and A. Papatsoris

Copyright © 2014 Luigi Cormio et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objectives. Normal and neoplastic human tissues have different electromagnetic properties. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of noninvasive electromagnetic detection of bladder cancer (BC) by the tissue-resonance interaction method (TRIM-prob). Patients and Methods. Consecutive patients were referred for cystoscopy because of (i) microscopic or gross hematuria and/or irritative voiding symptoms and (ii) bladder ultrasounds and urinary cytology findings negative or just suspicious of malignancy. Patients were first submitted to TRIM-prob bladder scanning by a single investigator and then to cystoscopy by another investigator blind to TRIM-prob data. Results. In 125 evaluated patients cystoscopy was positive for BC in 47 and negative in the remaining 78; conversely, TRIM-prob bladder scanning was positive for BC in 53 and negative in 72. In particular, TRIM-prob scanning yielded 7 false positives and only one false negative; therefore, its overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were 97.9%, 89.9%, 86.8%, 98.6%, and 93.6%, respectively. Conclusions. TRIM-prob bladder scanning was a simple and quite accurate method for non-invasive electromagnetic detection of BC. If the elevated positive and negative predictive values will be replicated in further well-designed studies, it could be used to screen asymptomatic patients at high risk of BC.