Table of Contents
ISRN AIDS
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 852489, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/852489
Research Article

Factors Determining Survival and Retention among HIV-Infected Children and Adolescents in a Community Home-Based Care and a Facility-Based Family-Centred Approach in Kampala, Uganda: A Cohort Study

1Department of Paediatrics, University of Padua, Via Giustiniani 3, 35128 Padua, Italy
2St. Raphael of St. Francis Hospital (Nsambya Hospital), Kampala, Uganda
3Makerere University, Johns Hopkins University Research Collaboration, Kampala, Uganda
4Infectious Diseases Research Collaboration, Mulago Hospital Complex, Kampala, Uganda
5Department of Global Health Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 50 Beale Street, 12th Floor, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA
6University of Witwatersrand, 1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Braamfontein 2000, Johannesburg, South Africa
7Department of Global Heath and Population, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
8Santa Chiara Hospital, Via Largo Gold Medals 9, 38122 Trento, Italy
9Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine 600 N. Wolfe Street/Carnegie 43 Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
10Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda

Received 21 December 2013; Accepted 1 April 2014; Published 1 April 2014

Academic Editors: R. Ansari and L. Sarmati

Copyright © 2014 W. Massavon et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. WHO/UNAIDS/UNICEF, “Global HIV/AIDS response: epidemic update and health sector progress towards universal access: progress report 2011,” 2011, http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241502986_eng.pdf.
  2. UNAIDS, “Getting to zero: 2011–2015 strategy Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS),” 2011, http://www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassets/documents/unaidspublication/2010/JC2034_UNAIDS_Strategy_en.pdf.
  3. UNAIDS, “Global report: UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic 2013,” 2013, http://www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassets/documents/epidemiology/2013/gr2013/UNAIDS_Global_Report_2013_en.pdf.
  4. V. Leroy, K. Malateste, H. Rabie, P. Lumbiganon, and S. Ayaya, “Outcomes of antiretroviral therapy in children in Asia and Africa: a comparative analysis of the IeDEA pediatric multiregional collaboration,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 62, pp. 208–219, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  5. D. K. Ekouevi, A. Azondekon, F. Dicko et al., “12-month mortality and loss-to-program in antiretroviral-treated children: the IeDEA pediatric West African database to evaluate AIDS (pWADA), 2000–2008,” BMC Public Health, vol. 11, article 519, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. Becquet, M. Marston, F. Dabis et al., “Children who acquire hiv infection perinatally are at higher risk of early death than those acquiring infection through breastmilk: a meta-analysis,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 2, Article ID e28510, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. G. Y. Asfawesen, J. Solomie, T. Bisirat, G. M. Berhanu, B. Mebratu, and S. Rahlenbeck, “Outcome in a paediatric cohort receiving ART in Addis Abeba, Ethiopia,” Acta Paediatrica, vol. 100, no. 8, pp. 1164–1167, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. Ben-Farhat, M. Gale, E. Szumilin, S. Balkan, and E. Poulet, “Paediatric HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa: clinical presentation and 2-year outcomes stratified by age group,” Tropical Medicine and International Health, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  9. C. Bolton-Moore, M. Mubiana-Mbewe, R. A. Cantrell et al., “Clinical outcomes and CD4 cell response in children receiving antiretroviral therapy at primary health care facilities in Zambia,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 298, no. 16, pp. 1888–1899, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. K. Leyenaar, P. M. Novosad, K. T. Ferrer et al., “Early clinical outcomes in children enrolled in human immunodeficiency virus infection care and treatment in lesotho,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 340–345, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. WHO, “Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection: recommendations for a public health approach,” 2013.
  12. A. D. Harries, S. D. Lawn, H. Getahun, R. Zachariah, and D. V. Havlir, “HIV and tuberculosis—science and implementation to turn the tide and reduce deaths,” Journal of the International AIDS Society, vol. 15, no. 2, Article ID 17396, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  13. M. C. Marazzi, S. de Luca, L. Palombi, P. Scarcella, and F. Ciccacci, “Predictors of adverse outcomes in HIV-1 infected children receiving combination antiretroviral treatment: results from a DREAM cohort in Sub-Saharan Africa,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 295–300, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  14. G. Tene, M. Lahuerta, C. Teasdale, V. Mugisha, and L. Kayonde, “High retention among HIV-infected children in Rwanda during scale-up and decentralization of HIV care and treatment programs, 2004 to 2010,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 32, pp. e341–e347, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  15. C. Mugglin, G. Wandeler, J. Estill, M. Egger, and N. Bender, “Retention in care of HIV-infected children from HIV test to start of antiretroviral therapy: systematic review,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, Article ID e56446, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  16. J. B. Nachega, E. J. Mills, and M. Schechter, “Antiretroviral therapy adherence and retention in care in middle-income and low-income countries: current status of knowledge and research priorities,” Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 70–77, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. U. Okomo, T. Togun, F. Oko, K. Peterson, and A. Jaye, “Mortality and loss to programme before antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected children eligible for treatment in The Gambia, West Africa,” AIDS Research and Therapy, vol. 9, article 28, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  18. M. L. McNairy, M. R. Lamb, R. J. Carter, R. Fayorsey, and G. Tene, “Retention of HIV-infected children on antiretroviral treatment in HIV care and treatment programs in Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda and Tanzania,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. e70–e81, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  19. E. D. Charlebois, T. D. Ruel, A. F. Gasasira et al., “Short-term risk of HIV disease progression and death in Ugandan children not eligible for antiretroviral therapy,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 330–335, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Munyagwa, K. Baisley, J. Levin, M. Brian, and H. Grosskurth, “Mortality of HIV-infected and uninfected children in a longitudinal cohort in rural south-west Uganda during 8 years of follow-up,” Tropical Medicine and International Health, vol. 17, pp. 836–843, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  21. Committee on Hospital Care, “Family-centered care and the pediatrician’s role,” Pediatrics, vol. 112, pp. 691–696, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  22. E. Luyirika, M. S. Towle, J. Achan, J. Muhangi, and C. Senyimba, “Scaling up paediatric HIV care with an integrated, family-centred approach: an observational case study from Uganda,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, Article ID e69548, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  23. WHO, “Community home-based care in resource-limited settings: a framework for action,” 2002, http://www.who.int/chp/knowledge/publications/comm_home_based_care/en/index.html.
  24. N. Mohammad and J. Gikonyo, “Operational Challenges Community Home Based Care (CHBC) for PLWHA in Multi-Country Aids Programs (MAP) in Africa,” Africa Region Working Paper Series No. 88, 2005, http://www.worldbank.org/afr/wps/wp88.pdf.
  25. WHO, “Antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in infants and children: towards universal access,” Recommendations for a public health approach, 2010, http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/paediatric/infants2010/en/index.html.
  26. “Panel on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of HIV-Infected Children. Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection,” 2011, http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/lvguidelines/pediatricguidelines.pdf.
  27. W. Massavon, R. Lundin, P. Costenaro et al., “Attrition and loss to follow-up among children and adolescents in a community home-based care HIV programme in Uganda,” Pediat Therapeut, vol. 3, article 183, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. WHO, “Scaling Up Antiretroviral Therapy in Resource-Limited Settings: Treatment Guidelines for a Public Health Approach 2003 Revision,” 2004, http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/prev_care/en/arvrevision2003en.pdf.
  29. WHO, “Antiretroviral Therapy of HIV Infection In Infants and Children: Towards Universal Access,” Recommendations for a public health approach, 2006, http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/guidelines/paediatric020907.pdf.
  30. WHO, “Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection in Adults and Adolescents,” Recommendations for a public health approach, 2006, http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/guidelines/artadultguidelines.pdf.
  31. P. Piot and T. C. Quinn, “Response to the AIDS pandemic—a global health model,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 368, pp. 2210–2218, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  32. A. Saez-Cirion, C. Bacchus, L. Hocqueloux, V. Avettand-Fenoel, and I. Girault, “Post-treatment HIV-1 controllers with a long-term virological remission after the interruption of early initiated antiretroviral therapy ANRS VISCONTI Study,” PLOS Pathogens, vol. 9, Article ID e1003211, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  33. B. S. Taylor, T. J. Wilkin, N. Shalev, and S. M. Hammer, “CROI 2013: advances in antiretroviral therapy,” Topics in Antiviral Medicine, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 75–89, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  34. J. van Griensven, L. de Naeyer, J. Uwera, A. Asiimwe, C. Gazille, and T. Reid, “Success with antiretroviral treatment for children in Kigali, Rwanda: experience with health center/nurse-based care,” BMC Pediatrics, vol. 8, article 39, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. T. H. Boyles, L. S. Wilkinson, R. Leisegang, and G. Maartens, “Factors influencing retention in care after starting antiretroviral therapy in a rural South African programme,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 5, Article ID e19201, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. R. Lamb, W. M. El-Sadr, E. Geng, and D. Nash, “Association of adherence support and outreach services with total attrition, loss to follow-up, and death among ART patients in sub-Saharan Africa,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, Article ID e38443, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  37. A. D. Harries, R. Zachariah, S. D. Lawn, and S. Rosen, “Strategies to improve patient retention on antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa,” Tropical Medicine and International Health, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 70–75, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. Rosen and M. P. Fox, “Retention in HIV care between testing and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 8, no. 7, Article ID e1001056, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. R. Pati, M. Lahuerta, B. Elul et al., “Factors associated with loss to clinic among HIV patients not yet known to be eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Mozambique,” Journal of the International AIDS Society, vol. 16, Article ID 18490, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. M. Penazzato, S. Crowley, L. Mofenson et al., “Programmatic impact of the evolution of WHO pediatric antiretroviral treatment guidelines for resource-limited countries (Tukula Fenna Project, Uganda),” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 61, pp. 522–525, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  41. G. Hirnschall, A. D. Harries, P. J. Easterbrook, M. C. Doherty, and A. Ball, “The next generation of the World Health Organization's global antiretroviral guidance,” Journal of the International AIDS Society, vol. 16, Article ID 18757, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. M. Penazzato, A. Prendergast, J. Tierney, M. Cotton, and D. Gibb, “Effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children under 2 years of age,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 7, Article ID CD004772, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  43. J. Kay, H. Wanzira, and T. Sandison, “Virologic suppression in nevirapine-exposed HIV-infected infants initiating antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda,” Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, vol. 58, pp. 194–199.
  44. V. Musiime, F. Ssali, J. Kayiwa et al., “Response to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based therapy in HIV-infected children with perinatal exposure to single-dose nevirapine,” AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 989–996, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. P. Palumbo, J. C. Lindsey, M. D. Hughes et al., “Antiretroviral treatment for children with peripartum nevirapine exposure,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 363, no. 16, pp. 1510–1520, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. P. M. Musoke, P. Mudiope, L. N. Barlow-Mosha et al., “Growth, immune and viral responses in HIV infected African children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort study,” BMC Pediatrics, vol. 10, article 56, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. Kekitiinwa, K. J. Lee, A. S. Walker et al., “Differences in factors associated with initial growth, CD4, and viral load responses to ART in HIV-infected children in Kampala, Uganda, and the United Kingdom/Ireland,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 384–392, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. K. L. Yu, S. C. C. Chen, K. Y. Wang et al., “True outcomes for patients on antiretroviral therapy who are “lost to follow-up” in Malawi,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 85, no. 7, pp. 550–554, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. W. G. Brinkhof, M. Pujades-Rodriguez, and M. Egger, “Mortality of patients lost to follow-up in antiretroviral treatment programmes in resource-limited settings: Systematic review and meta-analysis,” PLoS ONE, vol. 4, no. 6, Article ID e5790, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. WHO, “Retention in HIV programmes: defining the challenges and identifying solutions: meeting report,” Geneva, Switzerland, 2012, http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/meetingreports/retention_programmes/en/.