Table of Contents
ISRN Metallurgy
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 907536, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/907536
Research Article

Life Cycle Impact of Rare Earth Elements

1CSIRO Process Science and Engineering, Gate 5, Normanby Road, Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia
2EnviSolutions, 20 Galahad Crescent, Glen Waverley, Melbourne, VIC 3150, Australia

Received 19 December 2013; Accepted 14 January 2014; Published 4 May 2014

Academic Editors: M. Carboneras and P. Lukac

Copyright © 2014 P. Koltun and A. Tharumarajah. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Australian Industry Commission, New and Advanced Materials, Australian Government Publishing Service, Melbourne, Australia, 1995.
  2. U.S. Geological Survey, “Rare Earth Elements-Critical Resources for High Technology,” Fact Sheet 087-02, 2002, http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2002/fs087-02/.
  3. U.S. Geological Survey, “Mineral Commodity Summaries—Rare Earths,” 2008, http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/rare_earths/mcs-2008-raree.pdf.
  4. HEFA Rare Earth Canada Co. Ltd, Rare Earth products by element, http://www.baotou-rareearth.com/.
  5. U.S. Department of Energy, “Critical Materials Strategy,” December 2011, http://energy.gov/pi/office-policy-and-international-affairs/downloads/2011-critical-materials-strategy.
  6. S. Gorman, “As hybrid cars gobble rare metals, shortage looms,” Reuters, 30th August 2009, http://www.reuters.com/article/GCA-GreenBusiness/idUSTRE57U02L20090831.
  7. S. Gorman, “California mine digs in for, “green” gold rush,” Reuters, 30th August 2009, http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE57U02I20090831?sp=true.
  8. A. Pasternack, “China Tightens Grasp on Rare Earth Metals Vital for Green Technologies,” Treehugger (Business & Politics), August 2009, http://www.earth-stream.com/outpage.php?s=18&id=201861.
  9. D. Bauer, D. Diamond, J. Li, D. Sandalow, P. Telleen, and B. Wanneret, “Critical Materials Strategy, US Department of Energy,” 2010, http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/edg/news/documents/criticalmaterialsstrategy.pdf.
  10. T. E. Graedel, “On the future availability of the energy metals,” Annual Review of Materials Research, vol. 41, pp. 323–335, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. “Iron Ore Monthly Price,” November 2012, http://www.indexmundi.com/commodities/?commodity=iron-ore&months=12.
  12. D. Kingsnorth, “Rare earths: is supply critical in 2013?” in Proceedings of the Critical Minerals Conference Perth (AusIMM '13), Curtin Graduate School of Business; Curtin University & Industrial Minerals Company of Australia Pty Ltd, Western, Australia, June 2013.
  13. U.S. Geological Survey, “Niobium (Columbium) and Tantalum Statistics and Information,” Mineral Commodity Summaries—Niobium (Columbium) 2012, http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/niobium/mcs-2012-niobi.pdf.
  14. U.S. Geological Survey, Rare Earths Statistics and Information 2010, Minerals Yearbook 2010—Rare Earth Contents of Major and Potential Source Minerals, 2010, http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/rare_earths/myb1-2010-raree.xls.
  15. C. Yan, J. Jia, C. Liao, S. Wu, and G. Xu, “Rare earth separation in China,” Tsinghua Science and Technology, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 241–247, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. MineralPrices, December 2012, http://www.mineralprices.com/.
  17. AsianMetal, “Rare Earth Prices,” December 2012, http://www.asianmetal.com/price/initPriceListEn.am?priceFlag=8&productInfoIMG=PrNd+Mischmetal%E3%80%8299%EF%BC%85min+Nd+75%EF%BC%85+China%E3%80%82RMB%2FMT#.
  18. The China Post, “China will limit its exports of rare earth metals, official says,” 3rd August 2009, http://www.chinapost.com.tw/business/asia/b-china/2009/09/03/223211/China-will.htm.
  19. W. M. Morrison and R. Tang, “China’s Rare Earth Industry and Export Regime: Economic and Trade Implications for the United States,” Congressional Research Service 7-5700 R42510, April 2012, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R42510.pdf.
  20. ChinaDaily, “China announces rare earth export quotas,” July 2011, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2011-07/14/content_12906607.htm.
  21. X. Du and T. E. Graedel, “Global in-use stocks of the rare earth elements: a first estimate,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 4096–4101, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. M. Helmenstine, “Rare Earth Properties,” 2009, http://chemistry.about.com/od/elementgroups/a/rareearths.htm.
  23. L. J. Drew, M. Qingrun, and S. Weijun, “The Bayan Obo iron-rare-earth-niobium deposits, Inner Mongolia, China,” LITHOS, vol. 26, no. 1-2, pp. 43–65, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. W. Sinton, “Study of the Rare Earth Resources and Markets for the Mt,” Weld Complex for Lynas Corporation. BCC Research, Washington, DC, USA, 2008, http://www.lynascorp.com/content/upload/files/press_releases/BCC_FINAL_REPORT.pdf.
  25. R. Will, A. Eric, and N. Takei, “Chemical Economics Handbook—Rare Earth Minerals and Products,” SRI Consulting, Menlo Park, Calif, USA, 2010, http://www.sriconsulting.com/CEH/Public/Reports/765.5000/.
  26. Y. Kanazawa and M. Kamitani, “Rare earth minerals and resources in the world,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 408-412, pp. 1339–1343, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. X. Xing and H. M. Chen, “Environmental impacts of metal and other inorganics on soil and groundwater in China,” in Soils and Groundwater Pollution and Remediation: Asia, Africa, and Oceania, P. M. Huang and I. K. Iskandar, Eds., pp. 167–200, CRC Press, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  28. S. Zhang and X.-Q. Shan, “Speciation of rare earth elements in soil and accumulation by wheat with rare earth fertilizer application,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 112, no. 3, pp. 395–405, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. MolyCorp, “Mountain Pass Production,” 2011, http://www.molycorp.jp/about-us/current-future-production/.
  30. Geoscience Australia, “Rare Earth Production and Exports,” December 2012, http://www.ga.gov.au/minerals/mineral-resources/rare-earth-elements.html.
  31. S. Ramakrishnan and P. Koltun, “Global warming impact of the magnesium produced in China using the Pidgeon process,” Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 49–64, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Tharumarajah and P. Koltun, “Is there an environmental advantage of using magnesium components for light-weighting cars?” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 15, no. 11-12, pp. 1007–1013, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. A. Morais and V. S. T. Ciminelli, “Process development for the recovery of high-grade lanthanum by solvent extraction,” Hydrometallurgy, vol. 73, no. 3-4, pp. 237–244, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. L. Wenli, G. D. '. Ascenzo, R. Curini et al., “Simulation of the development automatization control system for rare earth extraction process: combination of ESRECE simulation software and EDXRF analysis technique,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 417, no. 1, pp. 111–118, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. C. Liao, C. Yan, and J. Jia, “A Novel Solvent Extraction System for Tm, Yb and Lu,” China Patent CN, 98100226.9, 2008, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1007021406701833.
  36. P. F. Duby, Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, John Wiley & Sons, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. International Standards Organisation, “Environmental management—Life cycle assessment—Requirements and guidelines,” ISO 14044, 2006.
  38. K. Kodera, Analysis of allocation methods of bioethanol LCA, Internship at CML [M.S. thesis], Faculty of Earth and Life Science, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands, 2007.
  39. F. Ardente and M. Cellura, “Economic allocation in life cycle assessment: the state of the art and discussion of examples,” Journal of Industrial Ecology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 387–398, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. Ren, S. Song, A. Lopez-Valdivieso, and S. Lu, “Selective flotation of bastnaesite from monazite in rare earth concentrates using potassium alum as depressant,” International Journal of Mineral Processing, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 237–245, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. Development Corp., Rare Earth Elements, http://www.candldevelopment.com/rare_earth_detail.htm.
  42. C. R. Hammond, The Elements, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC press, 81st edition, 2000.
  43. EcoInvent Centre, http://www.ecoinvent.org/database/.
  44. B. P. Weidema and M. S. Wesnæs, “Data quality management for life cycle inventories—an example of using data quality indicators,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 4, no. 3-4, pp. 167–174, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. Pre Consultants, 2011, http://www.pre.nl/.
  46. Pre Consultants, “A Damage oriented method for Life Cycle Assessment, Methodology Report,” 2nd edition, 2000, http://teclim.ufba.br/jsf/indicadores/holan%20ecoindicator%2099.pdf.
  47. E. S. Shedd, J. D. Marchant, and T. A. Henrie, “Electrowinning and tapping of lanthanum metal,” Bureau of Mines Report of Investigations 6882, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC, USA, 1966. View at Google Scholar
  48. R. A. Sharma, “Mettalothermic reduction of rare earth chlorides,” US Patent 4680055, General Motors Corporation, http://www.freepatentsonline.com/4680055.pdf.