Table of Contents
ISRN Physiology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 964627, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/964627
Review Article

Exercise-Induced Biological and Psychological Changes in Overweight and Obese Individuals: A Review of Recent Evidence

1School of Sport, Performing Arts and Leisure, University of Wolverhampton, Walsall WS1 3BD, UK
2FAME Laboratory, Institute of Research and Technology Thessaly, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, 42100 Trikala, Greece
3Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Kapodistrian University of Athens, 17237 Athens, Greece
4Department of Exercise Science, Chatham University, Pittsburgh, PA 15232, USA

Received 10 November 2013; Accepted 23 December 2013; Published 6 February 2014

Academic Editors: A. Bielli, A. N. Kavazis, and A. Tse

Copyright © 2014 Petros C. Dinas et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

On a global scale, the most recent evidence indicates that over 400 million adults are obese while ~20 million children and 1.6 billion adults are overweight. The World Health Organization reveals that, by the year 2015, ~2.3 billion adults will be overweight and more than 700 million will be obese. In this review paper we summarized the current evidence to elucidate the impact of exercise training on biological and psychological health indices in overweight and obese individuals. Endocrine function indices that are discussed herein include leptin, adiponectin, growth hormone, and ghrelin levels. Psychological factors include anxiety and depression, body image, and motivation for exercise. Overall, exercise promotes physical and psychological health in overweight and obese individuals particularly because exercise-induced adaptations occur across a multitude of systems within the active human. The impact of exercise on specific biological and psychological health indices contributes to overall health in overweight and obese individuals.