Table of Contents
International Scholarly Research Notices
Volume 2014, Article ID 967361, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/967361
Review Article

Juvenile Hormone Biosynthesis in Insects: What Is New, What Do We Know, and What Questions Remain?

Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA

Received 11 May 2014; Accepted 26 July 2014; Published 19 October 2014

Academic Editor: Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd

Copyright © 2014 Fernando G. Noriega. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Our understanding of JH biosynthesis has significantly changed in the last years. In this review I would like to discuss the following topics: (1) the progresses in understanding the JH biosynthesis pathway. Access to genome sequences has facilitated the identification of all the genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes and the completion of comprehensive transcriptional studies, as well as the expression and characterization of recombinant enzymes. Now the existence of different flux directionalites, feed-back loops and pathway branching points in the JH biosynthesis pathways can be explored; (2) the new concepts in the modulation of JH synthesis by allatoregulators. The list of putative JH modulators is increasing. I will discuss their possible role during the different physiological states of the CA; (3) the new theoretical and physiological frameworks for JH synthesis analysis. I will discuss the bases of the flux model for JH biosynthesis. JH plays multiple roles in the control of ovary development in female mosquitoes; therefore, the CA presents different physiological states, where JH synthesis is altered by gating the flux at distinctive points in the pathway; (4) in the final section I will identify new challenges and future directions on JH synthesis research.