Table of Contents
ISRN Toxicology
Volume 2014, Article ID 976428, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/976428
Research Article

Cadmium Impairs p53 Activity in HepG2 Cells

1Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Milano Bicocca, piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milan, Italy
2Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra, Italy
3Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, Università dell’Insubria, 21100 Varese, Italy

Received 20 November 2013; Accepted 15 January 2014; Published 13 March 2014

Academic Editors: P. S. Rajini and F. Remiao

Copyright © 2014 C. Urani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Satarug and M. R. Moore, “Adverse health effects of chronic exposure to low-level cadmium in foodstuffs and cigarette smoke,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 112, no. 10, pp. 1099–1103, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. P. Waalkes, “Cadmium carcinogenesis,” Mutation Research, vol. 533, no. 1-2, pp. 107–120, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. T. Schwerdtle, F. Ebert, C. Thuy, C. Richter, L. H. F. Mullenders, and A. Hartwig, “Genotoxicity of soluble and particulate cadmium compounds: impact on oxidative dna damage and nucleotide excision repair,” Chemical Research in Toxicology, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 432–442, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. L. Friberg and M. Vahter, “Assessment of exposure to lead and cadmium through biological monitoring: results of a UNEP/WHO global study,” Environmental Research, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 95–128, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. Hartwig, “Cadmium and cancer,” Metal Ions in Life Sciences, vol. 11, pp. 491–507, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. IARC, A Review of Human Carcinogens, Part C: Arsenic, Metals, Fibers, and Dusts, IARC, Lyon, France, 2012.
  7. M. Filipič, “Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability,” Mutation Research, vol. 733, no. 1-2, pp. 69–77, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. IARC, Supplement: Cadmium and Cadmium Compounds. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks To Humans, IARC, Lyon, France, 1997.
  9. NTP, (National Toxicology Program), “Tenth report on carcinogens,” Department of Health and Human Services III-42-III-44, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  10. A. Martelli, E. Rousselet, C. Dycke, A. Bouron, and J.-M. Moulis, “Cadmium toxicity in animal cells by interference with essential metals,” Biochimie, vol. 88, no. 11, pp. 1807–1814, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. G. Bertin and D. Averbeck, “Cadmium: cellular effects, modifications of biomolecules, modulation of DNA repair and genotoxic consequences (a review),” Biochimie, vol. 88, no. 11, pp. 1549–1559, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Hollstein, D. Sidransky, B. Vogelstein, and C. C. Harris, “p53 Mutations in human cancers,” Science, vol. 253, no. 5015, pp. 49–53, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Chatterjee, S. Kundu, S. Sengupta, and A. Bhattacharyya, “Divergence to apoptosis from ROS induced cell cycle arrest: effect of cadmium,” Mutation Research, vol. 663, no. 1-2, pp. 22–31, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. Méplan, K. Mann, and P. Hainaut, “Cadmium induces conformational modifications of wild-type p53 and suppresses p53 response to DNA damage in cultured cells,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 274, no. 44, pp. 31663–31670, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. M. P. Zegers and D. Hoekstra, “Mechanisms and functional features of polarized membrane traffic in epithelial and hepatic cells,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 336, no. 2, pp. 257–269, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. Urani, P. Melchioretto, C. Canevali, and G. F. Crosta, “Cytotoxicity and induction of protective mechanisms in HepG2 cells exposed to cadmium,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 887–892, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. V. Mersch-Sundermann, S. Knasmüller, X.-J. Wu, F. Darroudi, and F. Kassie, “Use of a human-derived liver cell line for the detection of cytoprotective, antigenotoxic and cogenotoxic agents,” Toxicology, vol. 198, no. 1–3, pp. 329–340, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. F. Dehn, C. M. White, D. E. Conners, G. Shipkey, and T. A. Cumbo, “Characterization of the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line as an in vitro model for cadmium toxicity studies,” In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology—Animal, vol. 40, pp. 172–181, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  19. J. Shea, T. Moran, and P. F. Dehn, “A bioassay for metals utilizing a human cell line,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 1025–1031, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. H. Lowry, N. J. Rosenbrought, A. L. Farr, and R. L. Randall, “Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 193, no. 1, pp. 265–275, 1951. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. Urani, P. Melchioretto, C. Canevali, F. Morazzoni, and L. Gribaldo, “Metallothionein and hsp70 expression in HepG2 cells after prolonged cadmium exposure,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 314–319, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. Fatur, M. Tušek, I. Falnoga, J. Ščančar, T. T. Lah, and M. Filipič, “DNA damage and metallothionein synthesis in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) exposed to cadmium,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 1069–1076, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. O. Lawal and E. Ellis, “Differential sensitivity and responsiveness of three human cell lines HepG2, 1321N1 and HEK 293 to cadmium,” Journal of Toxicological Sciences, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 465–478, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. Jiang, W. Duan, L. Xu, S. Song, C. Zhu, and L. Wu, “Biphasic effect of cadmium on cell proliferation in human embryo lung fibroblast cells and its molecular mechanism,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 973–978, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Mantha and C. Jumarie, “Cadmium-induced hormetic effect in differentiated caco-2 cells: ERK and p38 activation without cell proliferation stimulation,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 224, no. 1, pp. 250–261, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. L. Harris and A. J. Levine, “The p53 pathway: positive and negative feedback loops,” Oncogene, vol. 24, no. 17, pp. 2899–2908, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T. Inoue, L. Wu, J. Stuart, and C. G. Maki, “Control of p53 nuclear accumulation in stressed cells,” FEBS Letters, vol. 579, no. 22, pp. 4978–4984, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. K. Boehme, Y. Dietz, P. Hewitt, and S. O. Mueller, “Activation of P53 in HepG2 cells as surrogate to detect mutagens and promutagens in vitro,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 198, no. 2, pp. 272–281, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Fabbri, C. Urani, M. G. Sacco, C. Procaccianti, and L. Gribaldo, “Whole genome analysis and microRNAs regulation in HepG2 cells exposed to cadmium,” ALTEX, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 173–182, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. A. D. Saleh, J. E. Savage, L. Cao et al., “Cellular stress induced alterations in microrna let-7a and let-7b expression are dependent on p53,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 10, Article ID e24429, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. N. Tsuchiya, M. Izumiya, H. Ogata-Kawata et al., “Tumor suppressor miR-22 determines p53-dependent cellular fate through post-transcriptional regulation of p21,” Cancer Research, vol. 71, no. 13, pp. 4628–4639, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Wu, S. Huang, J. Ding et al., “Multiple microRNAs modulate p21Cip1/WAF1 expression by directly targeting its 3′ untranslated region,” Oncogene, vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 2302–2308, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. Y. Jin, D. Chen, R. J. Cabay, A. Wang, D. L. Crowe, and X. Zhou, “Role of microRNA-138 as a potential tumor suppressor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma,” International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 303, pp. 357–385, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. H. Gu, X. Guo, L. Zou, H. Zhu, and J. Zhang, “Upregulation of microRNA-372 associates with tumor progression and prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 375, pp. 23–30, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  35. R. Shimoda, W. E. Achanzar, W. Qu et al., “Metallothionein is a potential negative regulator of apoptosis,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 294–300, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. Y. Kondo, J. M. Rusnak, D. G. Hoyt, C. E. Settineri, B. R. Pitt, and J. S. Lazo, “Enhanced apoptosis in metallothionein null cells,” Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 195–201, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. L. Z. Fan and M. G. Cherian, “Potential role of p53 on metallothionein induction in human epithelial breast cancer cells,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 87, no. 9, pp. 1019–1026, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. C. Urani, P. Melchioretto, and L. Gribaldo, “Regulation of metallothioneins and ZnT-1 transporter expression in human hepatoma cells HepG2 exposed to zinc and cadmium,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 370–374, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus