Table of Contents
International Scholarly Research Notices
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 6296458, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6296458
Research Article

Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Traditional Cosmetics Sold in Tunisian Local Markets

1Centre d’Assistance Médicale et Urgente CAMU, 1008 Tunis Cedex, Tunisia
2Laboratoire de Toxicologie et Environnement LR12SP07, 10 rue Abou Kacem Chabbi, Montfleury, 1008 Tunis Cedex, Tunisia
3Laboratoires de Pharmaceutiques, Cosmétiques et Détergents, Centre Technique de la Chimie, 12 rue de l’Usine, Charguia II, Carthage, 2035 Tunis, Tunisia

Received 27 September 2015; Revised 16 December 2015; Accepted 30 December 2015

Academic Editor: Christophe Waterlot

Copyright © 2016 Mohamed Anouar Nouioui et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. J. Loretz, A. M. Api, L. Babcock et al., “Exposure data for cosmetic products: facial cleanser, hair conditioner, and eye shadow,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 1516–1524, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. J. Nohynek, E. Antignac, T. Re, and H. Toutain, “Safety assessment of personal care products/cosmetics and their ingredients,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 243, no. 2, pp. 239–259, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. K. Tomankova, K. Kejlova, S. Binder et al., “In vitro cytotoxicity and phototoxicity study of cosmetics colorants,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1242–1250, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. G. Volpe, M. Nazzaro, R. Coppola, F. Rapuano, and R. P. Aquino, “Determination and assessments of selected heavy metals in eye shadow cosmetics from China, Italy, and USA,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 101, pp. 65–69, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. E.-L. Sainio, R. Jolanki, E. Hakala, and L. Kanerva, “Metals and arsenic in eye shadows,” Contact Dermatitis, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 5–10, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. A. Healy and M. Aslam, “Identification of lead in Asian cosmetics—a test for use by health visitors,” Public Health, vol. 98, no. 6, pp. 361–366, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. Parry and J. Eaton, “Kohl: a lead-hazardous eye makeup from the third world to the first world,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 94, pp. 121–123, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. V. Sprinkle, “Leaded eye cosmetics: a cultural cause of elevated lead levels in children,” The Journal of Family Practice, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 358–362, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. M. Alkhawajah, “Alcohol use in Saudi Arabia, extent of use and possible lead toxicity,” Tropical and Geographical Medicine, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 373–377, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. D. Hardy, R. I. Walton, and R. Vaishnav, “Composition of eye cosmetics (kohls) used in Cairo,” International Journal of Environmental Health Research, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 83–91, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. D. Hardy, R. Vaishnav, S. S. Z. Al-Kharusi, H. H. Sutherland, and M. A. Worthing, “Composition of eye cosmetics (kohls) used in Oman,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 223–234, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. D. Hardy, H. H. Sutherland, and R. Vaishnav, “A study of the composition of some eye cosmetics (kohls) used in the United Arab Emirates,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 80, no. 2-3, pp. 137–145, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. A. Worthing, H. H. Sutherland, and K. Al-Riyami, “New information on the composition of bint al dhahab, a mixed lead monoxide used as a traditional medicine in Oman and the United Arab Emirates,” Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 246–247, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. A. Healy, P. G. Harrison, M. Aslam, S. S. Davis, and C. G. Wilson, “Lead sulphide and traditional preparation: routes for ingestion, and solubility and reactions in gastric fluid,” Journal of Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 169–173, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  15. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), “Automatic detention of eye area cosmetics containing Kohl, Kajal or Surma,” Import Alert 53-13, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  16. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Office of Cosmetics and Colors: Eye Cosmetics Safety, 2001, http://www.fda.gov/cosmetics/productsingredients/products/ucm137250.htm.
  17. M. A. Gondal, Z. S. Seddigi, M. M. Nasr, and B. Gondal, “Spectroscopic detection of health hazardous contaminants in lipstick using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 175, no. 1–3, pp. 726–732, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. N. M. Hepp, W. R. Mindak, and J. Cheng, “Determination of total lead in lipstick: development and validation of a microwave-assisted digestion, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric method,” Journal of Cosmetic Science, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 405–414, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. D. Besecker, C. B. Rhoades Jr., and B. T. Jones, “A simple closed-vessel nitric acid digestion method for cosmetic samples,” Atomic Spectroscopy, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 48–54, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Saeed, N. Muhammad, and H. Khan, “Assessment of heavy metal content of branded Pakistani herbal products,” Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 499–506, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  21. I. Al-Saleh, S. Al-Enazi, and N. Shinwari, “Assessment of lead in cosmetics products,” Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 105–113, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. International Atomic Energy Agency AIEA, “Training workshop on the analysis of trace metals in biological and sediments samples: laboratory procedure book,” http://www.cnstn.rnrt.tn/.../IAEA%20Recommended%20An.
  23. N. Lekouch, A. Sedki, A. Nejmeddine, and S. Gamon, “Lead and traditional Moroccan pharmacopoeia,” The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 280, no. 1–3, pp. 39–43, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. G. Ayenimo, A. M. Yusuf, A. S. Adekunle, and O. W. Makinde, “Heavy metal exposure from personal care products,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 8–14, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. H. Ullah, S. Noreen, Fozia et al., “Comparative study of heavy metals content in cosmetic products of different countries marketed in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan,” The Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. N. Bernth, O. C. Hansen, S. F. Hansen, and E. Pedersen, “Survey of chemical substances in kohl and henna products,” Products, Teknologisk Institut, Environment Protecting Agency, Danish Ministry of the Environment, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  27. R. M. Al-Ashban, M. Aslam, and A. H. Shah, “Kohl (surma): a toxic traditional eye cosmetic study in Saudi Arabia,” Public Health, vol. 118, no. 4, pp. 292–298, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. A. F. Al-Hazzaa and P. M. Krahn, “Kohl: a hazardous eyeliner,” International Ophthalmology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 83–88, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. O. Al-Dayel, J. Hefne, and T. Al-Ajyan, “Human exposure to heavy metals from cosmetics,” Oriental Journal of Chemistry, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  30. I. C. Nnorom, J. C. Igwe, and C. G. Oji-Nnorom, “Trace metal contents of facial (make-up) cosmetics commonly used in Nigeria,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 1133–1138, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. I. A. AI-Saleh and L. Coate, “Lead exposure in Saudi Arabia from the use of traditional cosmetics and medical remedies,” Environmental Geochemistry and Health, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 29–31, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. K. N. Jallad and C. Espada-Jallad, “Lead exposure from the use of Lawsonia inermis (Henna) in temporary paint-on-tattooing and hair dying,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 397, no. 1–3, pp. 244–250, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. S. Al-Wakeel, “Microbial and heavy metals contamination of herbal medicines,” Research Journal of Microbiology, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 683–691, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. F. R. Gallo, G. Multari, G. Palazzino et al., “Henna through the centuries: a quick HPTLC analysis proposal to check henna identity,” Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 133–140, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. F. Corbett, “Hair coloring,” Clinics in Dermatology, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 93–101, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. I.-J. Kang and M.-H. Lee, “Quantification of para-phenylenediamine and heavy metals in henna dye,” Contact Dermatitis, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 26–29, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. Health Canada, “Consumer product safety: draft guidance on heavy metal impurities in cosmetics,” 2011, http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/cps-spc/pubs/indust/heavy_metals-metaux_lourds/index-eng.php.
  38. Bkg. 489: Bekendtgørelse om kosmetiske produkter, Bekendtgørelse nr. 489 af 12/06/2003, The Danish implementation of Council Directive 76/768/EEC, Miljøministeriet, Statutory Order on Cosmetic Products, Statutory Order of 12.06.2003, Danish Ministry of the Environment (Danish).
  39. Federal Health Office of Germany, “Mitteilung des bundesgesundheitsamtes: Technischvermeidbare gehalte an schwermetallen in Kosmetischen Erzeugnissen,” Bundesgesundheitsblatt, vol. 28, no. 7, p. 216, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  40. The Cosmetic-Toiletry and Fragrance Association (CTFA), “Comments of the Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association regarding the scientific and legal issues associated with nanotechnology in personal care products,” Report, The Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association (CTFA), 2006. View at Google Scholar
  41. The Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products Intended for Consumers (SCCNFP), “Opinion Concerning Zinc Oxide,” Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products Intended for Consumers (SCCNFP) after the 24th Plenary Meeting of June 2003, http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/sccp/documents/out222_en.pdf.
  42. Japan Ministry of Health-Labour and Welfare and Pharmaceutical and Food Safety Bureau, Standards for Cosmetics Notification no. 331, Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Tokyo, Japan, 2000.
  43. M. N. V. Prasad and A. K. Shanker, “Mode of action and toxicity of trace elements,” Public Health Reports, vol. 38, no. 21, pp. 1882–1912, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  44. I. Al-Saleh, M. Nester, E. Devol, N. Shinwari, and S. Al-Shahria, “Determinants of blood lead levels in Saudi Arabian schoolgirls,” International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 107–114, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. Nir, A. Tamir, N. Zelnik, and T. C. Iancu, “Is eye cosmetics a source of lead poisoning?” Israel Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 417–421, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  46. M. H. Rahbar, F. White, M. Agboatwalla, S. Hozhabri, and S. Luby, “Factors associated with elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi, Pakistan,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 80, no. 10, pp. 769–775, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. Shaltout, S. A. Yaish, and N. Fernando, “Lead encephalopathy in infants in Kuwait. A study of 20 infants with particular reference to clinical presentation and source of lead poisoning,” Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 209–215, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. R. Plante, J. L. Benedetti, G. Carrier et al., Nosologic Definition of a Notifiable Disease or a Poisoning and a Significant Exposure: Lead, Institut National de Santé Publique de Québec, 1998.
  49. M. A. Warley, P. Blackledge, and P. O'Gorman, “Lead poisoning from eye cosmetic,” British Medical Journal, vol. 1, no. 584, p. 117, 1968. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. V. K. Sharma, “Tuberculostatic activity of henna (Lawsonia inermis Linn.),” Tubercle, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 293–295, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. B. H. Ali, A. K. Bashir, and M. O. M. Tanira, “Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic effects of Lawsonia inermis L. (henna) in rats,” Pharmacology, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 356–363, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. H. S. Muhammad and S. Muhammad, “The use of Lawsonia inermis Linn. (henna) in the management of burn wound infections,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 934–937, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. Y. Bousliman, R. Eljaoudi, M. Ait Elcadi, A. Laatiris, A. Bouklouze, and Y. Cherrah, “Toxicology of paraphenylenediamine,” Toxicology, vol. 18, no. 183, pp. 632–636, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  54. M. Polat, M. Dikilitas, P. Öztaş, and N. Alli, “Allergic contact dermatitis to pure Henna,” Dermatology Online Journal, vol. 15, no. 1, article 15, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. C. J. Le Coz, C. Lefebvre, F. Keller, and E. Grosshans, “Allergic contact dermatitis caused by skin painting (pseudotattooing) with black henna, a mixture of henna and p-phenylenediamine and its derivatives,” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 136, no. 12, pp. 1515–1517, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. P. Raupp, J. A. Hassan, M. Varughese, and B. Kristiansson, “Henna causes life threatening haemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 85, no. 5, pp. 411–412, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. A. N. Kök, V. Ertekin, Y. Bilge, and A. F. Işik, “An unusual cause of suicide: henna (Lawsonia inermis Linn.),” Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 343–344, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. O. Uygur-Bayramicli, R. Dabak, and M. Sargin, “Acute chemical colitis resulting from oral intake of henna,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 920–921, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. D. Amira, I. Gana, A. Nouioui et al., “p-Phenylenediamine poisoning in Tunisia: a case report,” Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 138–142, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  60. J. B. B. Da Silva, D. L. G. Borges, M. A. M. S. Da Veiga, A. J. Curtius, and B. Welz, “Determination of cadmium in biological samples solubilized with tetramethylammonium hydroxide by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, using ruthenium as permanent modifier,” Talanta, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 977–982, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. O. C. Theresa, O. C. Onebunne, W. A. Dorcas, and I. A. Ogunwande, “Potentially toxic metals exposure from body creams sold in Lagos, Nigeria,” Researcher, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 30–37, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  62. G. J. Fosmire, “Zinc toxicity,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 225–227, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. K. R. Nolan, “Copper toxicity syndrome,” Journal of Orthomolecular Psychiatry, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 270–282, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus