Table of Contents
Journal of Allergy
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 902359, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/902359
Review Article

Twin Studies of Atopic Dermatitis: Interpretations and Applications in the Filaggrin Era

1Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, 2400 Copenhagen NV, Denmark
2Center for Medical Research Methodology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark

Received 3 August 2015; Accepted 2 September 2015

Academic Editor: Stephen P. Peters

Copyright © 2015 Camilla Elmose and Simon Francis Thomsen. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. C. William, “Clinical practice. Atopic dermatitis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 352, no. 22, pp. 2314–2324, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. K. Eyerich and N. Novak, “Immunology of atopic eczema: overcoming the Th1/Th2 paradigm,” Allergy, vol. 68, no. 8, pp. 974–982, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. I. Asher, S. Montefort, B. Björkstén et al., “Worldwide time trends in the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in childhood: ISAAC Phases One and Three repeat multicountry cross-sectional surveys,” The Lancet, vol. 368, no. 9537, pp. 733–743, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. P. Strachan, “Hay fever, hygiene, and household size,” British Medical Journal, vol. 299, no. 6710, pp. 1259–1260, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. T. Bieber, “Atopic dermatitis 2.0: from the clinical phenotype to the molecular taxonomy and stratified medicine,” Allergy, vol. 67, no. 12, pp. 1475–1482, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. N. A. Palmer, A. D. Irvine, A. Terron-Kwiatkowski et al., “Common loss-of-function variants of the epidermal barrier protein filaggrin are a major predisposing factor for atopic dermatitis,” Nature Genetics, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 441–446, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. L. Edfors-Lubs, “Allergy in 7000 twin pairs,” Acta Allergologica, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 249–285, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. F. Schultz Larsen, N. V. Holm, and K. Henningsen, “Atopic dermatitis: a genetic-epidemiologic study in a population-based twin sample,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 487–494, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. F. S. Larsen, “Atopic dermatitis: a genetic-epidemiologic study in a population-based twin sample,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 719–723, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. Lichtenstein and M. Svartengren, “Genes, environments, and sex: factors of importance in atopic diseases in 7-9-year-old Swedish twins,” Allergy, vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 1079–1086, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. P. Strachan, H. J. Wong, and T. D. Spector, “Concordance and interrelationship of atopic diseases and markers of allergic sensitization among adult female twins,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 108, no. 6, pp. 901–907, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. W. Nystad, E. Røysamb, P. Magnus, K. Tambs, and J. R. Harris, “A comparison of genetic and environmental variance structures for asthma, hay fever and eczema with symptoms of the same diseases: a study of Norwegian twins,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1302–1309, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. F. Thomsen, C. S. Ulrik, K. O. Kyvik et al., “Importance of genetic factors in the etiology of atopic dermatitis: a twin study,” Allergy and Asthma Proceedings, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 535–539, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. I. Jäderberg, S. F. Thomsen, K. O. Kyvik, A. Skytthe, and V. Backer, “Atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction,” Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 140–145, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. F. Thomsen, C. S. Ulrik, K. O. Kyvik, L. R. Skadhauge, I. Steffensen, and V. Backer, “Findings on the atopic triad from a Danish twin registry,” The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1268–1272, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. E. M. van Beijsterveldt and D. I. Boomsma, “Genetics of parentally reported asthma, eczema and rhinitis in 5-yr-old twins,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 516–521, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. E. van der Hulst, H. Klip, and P. L. P. Brand, “Risk of developing asthma in young children with atopic eczema: a systematic review,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 120, no. 3, pp. 565–569, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. M. Spergel, “From atopic dermatitis to asthma: the atopic march,” Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 99–106, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. F. Thomsen, “Exploring the origins of asthma: lessons from twin studies,” European Clinical Respiratory Journal, vol. 1, pp. 1–42, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. S. V. Glinianaia, J. Rankin, and M. Renwick, “Time trends in twin perinatal mortality in northern England, 1982-94,” Twin Research, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 189–195, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. Halvorsen, B. T. Skadberg, G. E. Eide, O. D. Røksund, K. H. Carlsen, and P. Bakke, “Pulmonary outcome in adolescents of extreme preterm birth: a regional cohort study,” Acta Paediatrica, vol. 93, no. 10, pp. 1294–1300, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. M. McKeever, S. A. Lewis, C. Smith et al., “Siblings, multiple births, and the incidence of allergic disease: a birth cohort study using the West Midlands general practice research database,” Thorax, vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 758–762, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. A. H. M. van den Oord and A. Sheikh, “Filaggrin gene defects and risk of developing allergic sensitisation and allergic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis,” British Medical Journal, vol. 339, Article ID b2433, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. F. Thomsen, C. S. Ulrik, K. O. Kyvik et al., “The incidence of asthma in young adults,” Chest, vol. 127, no. 6, pp. 1928–1934, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. B. Wüthrich, “Clinical aspects, epidemiology, and prognosis of atopic dermatitis,” Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 464–470, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. J. Brown, A. Sandilands, Y. Zhao et al., “Prevalent and low-frequency null mutations in the filaggrin gene are associated with early-onset and persistent atopic eczema,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 128, no. 6, pp. 1591–1594, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. N. W. N. Barker, C. N. A. Palmer, Y. Zhao et al., “Null mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) determine major susceptibility to early-onset atopic dermatitis that persists into adulthood,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 127, no. 3, pp. 564–567, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. H. Rupnik, M. Rijavec, and P. Korošec, “Filaggrin loss-of-function mutations are not associated with atopic dermatitis that develops in late childhood or adulthood,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 172, no. 2, pp. 455–461, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. N. G. Heede, J. P. Thyssen, B. H. Thuesen, A. Linneberg, and J. D. Johansen, “Anatomical patterns of dermatitis in adult filaggrin mutation carriers,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 440–448, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. T.-L. Hackett, H. G. De Bruin, F. Shaheen et al., “Caveolin-1 controls airway epithelial barrier function implications for asthma,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 662–671, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. E. L. Simpson, T. M. Berry, P. A. Brown, and J. M. Hanifin, “A pilot study of emollient therapy for the primary prevention of atopic dermatitis,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 587–593, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. Hoare, A. Li Wan Po, and H. Williams, “Systematic review of treatments for atopic eczema,” Health Technology Assessment, vol. 4, pp. 1–191, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. K. Horimukai, K. Morita, M. Narita et al., “Application of moisturizer to neonates prevents development of atopic dermatitis,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 134, no. 4, pp. 824–830.e6, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. E. L. Simpson, J. R. Chalmers, J. M. Hanifin et al., “Emollient enhancement of the skin barrier from birth offers effective atopic dermatitis prevention,” The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 134, no. 4, pp. 818–823, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. T. Bell and T. D. Spector, “A twin approach to unraveling epigenetics,” Trends in Genetics, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 116–125, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. T. Bell and R. Saffery, “The value of twins in epigenetic epidemiology,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 140–150, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. Reyes, M. Haynes, N. Hanson et al., “Viruses in the faecal microbiota of monozygotic twins and their mothers,” Nature, vol. 466, no. 7304, pp. 334–338, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. P. J. Turnbaugh, M. Hamady, T. Yatsunenko et al., “A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins,” Nature, vol. 457, no. 7228, pp. 480–484, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. Dicksved, J. Halfvarson, M. Rosenquist et al., “Molecular analysis of the gut microbiota of identical twins with Crohn's disease,” ISME Journal, vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 716–727, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. W. Cozen, G. Yu, M. H. Gail et al., “Fecal microbiota diversity in survivors of adolescent/young adult Hodgkin lymphoma: a study of twins,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 108, no. 5, pp. 1163–1167, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus