Figure 6: Oxidation of protein cysteine residues to sulfenic, sulfinic, or sulfonic derivatives and formation of glutathionylated proteins. In biological systems, sulfenic and sulfinic derivatives may be reduced by thioredoxin (TR) and sulfiredoxin (Srx), respectively, whereas sulfonic moieties cannot be reduced. Glutathionylated proteins are formed by direct interaction of GSH with sulfenic acid derivatives, exchange between cysteine residues and GSSG, or interaction with oxidized glutathione forms.