Table of Contents
Journal of Applied Chemistry
Volume 2016, Article ID 8236238, 10 pages
Research Article

Comparison of Surface and Structural Properties of Carbonaceous Materials Prepared by Chemical Activation of Tomato Paste Waste: The Effects of Activator Type and Impregnation Ratio

Chemical and Process Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Bilecik Seyh Edebali University, Gulumbe Campus, 11210 Bilecik, Turkey

Received 4 April 2016; Revised 6 August 2016; Accepted 24 August 2016

Academic Editor: Azael Fabregat

Copyright © 2016 Nurgul Ozbay and Adife Seyda Yargic. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Activated carbons were prepared by carbonization of tomato paste processing industry waste at 500°C followed by chemical activation with KOH, K2CO3, and HCl in N2 atmosphere at low temperature (500°C). The effects of different activating agents and impregnation ratios (25, 50, and 100 wt.%) on the materials’ characteristics were examined. Precursor, carbonized tomato waste (CTW), and activated carbons were characterized by using ultimate and proximate analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, point of zero charge measurements (), particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Activation process improved pore formation and changed activated carbons’ surface characteristics. Activated carbon with the highest surface area (283 m3/g) was prepared by using 50 wt.% KOH as an activator. According to the experimental results, tomato paste waste could be used as an alternative precursor to produce low-cost activated carbon.