Table of Contents
Journal of Artificial Evolution and Applications
Volume 2008, Article ID 587309, 16 pages
Research Article

Forma Analysis of Particle Swarm Optimisation for Permutation Problems

Department of Computing, City University, London EC1V 0HB, UK

Received 20 July 2007; Revised 20 January 2008; Accepted 1 April 2008

Academic Editor: Riccardo Poli

Copyright © 2008 Tao Gong and Andrew L. Tuson. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Particle swarm optimisation (PSO) is an innovative and competitive optimisation technique for numerical optimisation with real-parameter representation. In this paper, we examine the working mechanism of PSO in a principled manner with forma analysis and investigate the applicability of PSO on the permutation problem domain. Particularly, our derived PSO schemes are empirically studied based on the quadratic assignment problem (QAP) benchmarks to justify its comparable performance, which in turn implies the benefits of our approach in applying PSO to the discrete problem domain.