Table of Contents
Journal of Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics
Volume 2012, Article ID 850482, 5 pages
Research Article

Integrated Polypyrrole Flexible Conductors for Biochips and MEMS Applications

1Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
2Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA

Received 13 March 2012; Accepted 14 May 2012

Academic Editor: Zeev Zalevsky

Copyright © 2012 Rakefet Ofek Almog et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Integrated polypyrrole, a conductive polymer, interconnects on polymeric substrates were microfabricated for flexible sensors and actuators applications. It allows manufacturing of moving polymeric microcomponents suitable, for example, for micro-optical-electromechanical (MOEMS) systems or implanted sensors. This generic technology allows producing “all polymer” components where the polymers serve as both the structural and the actuating materials. In this paper we present two possible novel architectures that integrate polypyrrole conductors with other structural polymers: (a) polypyrrole embedded into flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix forming high aspect ratio electrodes and (b) polypyrrole deposited on planar structures. Self-aligned polypyrrole electropolymerization was developed and demonstrated for conducting polymer lines on either gold or copper seed layers. The electropolymerization process, using cyclic voltammetry from an electrolyte containing the monomer, is described, as well as the devices’ characteristics. Finally, we discuss the effect of integrating conducting polymers with metal seed layer, thus enhancing the device durability and reliability.