Table of Contents
Journal of Angiology
Volume 2013, Article ID 592815, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/592815
Research Article

Fibrous Cap Smooth Muscle Cells in Atherosclerotic Coronary Arteries Do Not Express Pluripotent Stem Cell Markers

College of Health and Biomedicine, Victoria University, McKechnie St, St Albans Campus 3021, Victoria, Australia

Received 27 March 2013; Revised 17 June 2013; Accepted 17 June 2013

Academic Editor: Hironori Nakagami

Copyright © 2013 Melanie Sullivan and Anthony Zulli. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. Corti, M. E. Farkouh, and J. J. Badimon, “The vulnerable plaque and acute coronary syndromes,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 113, no. 8, pp. 668–680, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. T. Umemura and Y. Higashi, “Endothelial progenitor cells: therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases,” Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. E. Westerweel, F. L. J. Visseren, G. R. Hajer et al., “Endothelial progenitor cell levels in obese men with the metabolic syndrome and the effect of simvastatin monotherapy vs. simvastatin/ezetimibe combination therapy,” European Heart Journal, vol. 29, no. 22, pp. 2808–2817, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. F. H. Bahlmann, K. de Groot, O. Mueller, B. Hertel, H. Haller, and D. Fliser, “Stimulation of endothelial progenitor cells: a new putative therapeutic effect of angiotensin II receptor antagonists,” Hypertension, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 526–529, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C.-H. Wang, S. Verma, I.-C. Hsieh et al., “Enalapril increases ischemia-induced endothelial progenitor cell mobilization through manipulation of the CD26 system,” Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 34–43, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. Sata, A. Saiura, A. Kunisato et al., “Hematopoietic stem cells differentiate into vascular cells that participate in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis,” Nature Medicine, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 403–409, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. F. Bentzon, C. S. Sondergaard, M. Kassem, and E. Falk, “Smooth muscle cells healing atherosclerotic plaque disruptions are of local, not blood, origin in apolipoprotein E knockout mice,” Circulation, vol. 116, no. 18, pp. 2053–2061, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. F. Bentzon, C. Weile, C. S. Sondergaard, J. Hindkjaer, M. Kassem, and E. Falk, “Smooth muscle cells in atherosclerosis originate from the local vessel wall and not circulating progenitor cells in apoE knockout mice,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 2696–2702, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. W. Wojakowski, M. Kucia, R. Liu et al., “Circulating very small embryonic-like stem cells in cardiovascular disease,” Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 138–144, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. W. Wojakowski, M. Kucia, E. Zuba-Surma et al., “Very small embryonic-like stem cells in cardiovascular repair,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 21–28, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Berger and L. Lavie, “Endothelial progenitor cells in cardiovascular disease and hypoxia—potential implications to obstructive sleep apnea,” Translational Research, vol. 158, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. Y.-C. Huang, Z.-M. Yang, X.-H. Chen et al., “Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from human placental decidua basalis and resistance to hypoxia and serum deprivation,” Stem Cell Reviews and Reports, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 247–255, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Zulli, B. F. Buxton, M. J. Black, and D. L. Hare, “CD34 Class III positive cells are present in atherosclerotic plaques of the rabbit model of atherosclerosis,” Histochemistry and Cell Biology, vol. 124, no. 6, pp. 517–522, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Zulli, B. F. Buxton, M. J. Black, and D. L. Hare, “Embryonic stem cells markers are present within rabbit atherosclerotic plaques,” Histology and Histopathology, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 741–746, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. Zulli, B. F. Buxton, M. Merrilees, and D. L. Hare, “Human diseased arteries contain cells expressing leukocytic and embryonic stem cell markers,” Human Pathology, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 657–665, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Pesce and H. R. Schöler, “Oct-4: gatekeeper in the beginnings of mammalian development,” Stem Cells, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 271–278, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Yanagisawa and R. K. Yu, “The expression and functions of glycoconjugates in neural stem cells,” Glycobiology, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 57R–74R, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. E. Gilboa, “The makings of a tumor rejection antigen,” Immunity, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 263–270, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. Zulli and D. L. Hare, “High dietary methionine plus cholesterol stimulates early atherosclerosis and late fibrous cap development which is associated with a decrease in GRP78 positive plaque cells,” International Journal of Experimental Pathology, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 311–320, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Zulli, S. Rai, B. F. Buxton, L. M. Burrell, and D. L. Hare, “Co-localization of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-, octomer-4- and CD34-positive cells in rabbit atherosclerotic plaques,” Experimental Physiology, vol. 93, no. 5, pp. 564–569, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. Urbich and S. Dimmeler, “Endothelial progenitor cells: characterization and role in vascular biology,” Circulation Research, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 343–353, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J.-S. Silvestre, A. Gojova, V. Brun et al., “Transplantation of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells in ischemic apolipoprotein E-knockout mice accelerates atherosclerosis without altering plaque composition,” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 23, pp. 2839–2842, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. George, A. Afek, A. Abashidze et al., “Transfer of endothelial progenitor and bone marrow cells influences atherosclerotic plaque size and composition in apolipoprotein E knockout mice,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2636–2641, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. Libby, “Inflammation in atherosclerosis,” Nature, vol. 420, no. 6917, pp. 868–874, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. Bonde, M. Pedram, R. Stultz, and N. Zavazava, “Cell fusion of bone marrow cells and somatic cell reprogramming by embryonic stem cells,” FASEB Journal, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 364–373, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Wang, J. Zhang, L.-Q. Jiang et al., “Proinflammatory profile within the grossly normal aged human aortic wall,” Hypertension, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 219–227, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. H. Campbell and G. R. Campbell, “The cell biology of atherosclerosis—new developments,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 497–500, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. J. Dilley, J. K. McGeachie, and F. J. Prendergast, “A review of the proliferative behaviour, morphology and phenotypes of vascular smooth muscle,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 63, no. 2-3, pp. 99–107, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. K. Noaksson, N. Zoric, X. Zeng et al., “Monitoring differentiation of human embryonic stem cells using real-time PCR,” Stem Cells, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 1460–1467, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. R. Tejedo, R. Tapia-Limonchi, S. Mora-Castilla et al., “Low concentrations of nitric oxide delay the differentiation of embryonic stem cells and promote their survival,” Cell Death and Disease, vol. 1, no. 10, article e80, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus