Table of Contents
Journal of Anthropology
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 103842, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/103842
Research Article

Diagnosis of Mercurial Teeth in a Possible Case of Congenital Syphilis and Tuberculosis in a 19th Century Child Skeleton

Biological Anthropology and Comparative Anatomy Research Unit, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia

Received 2 February 2015; Accepted 17 March 2015

Academic Editor: Holger Schutkowski

Copyright © 2015 Stella Ioannou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. N. J. L. Fiumara, “Syphilis in newborn children,” Clinical Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 183–189, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. C. Gerbase, J. T. Rowley, D. H. L. Heymann, S. F. B. Berkley, and P. Piot, “Global prevalence and incidence estimates of selected curable STDS,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 74, supplement 1, pp. S12–S16, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. R. Woods, “Syphilis in children: congenital and acquired,” Seminars in Pediatric Infectious Diseases, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 245–257, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. A. Fenton, R. Breban, R. Vardavas et al., “Infectious syphilis in high-income settings in the 21st century,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 244–253, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. G. Schmid, “Economic and programmatic aspects of congenital syphilis prevention,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 402–409, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H. Saloojee, S. Velaphi, Y. Goga, N. Afadapa, R. Steen, and O. Lincetto, “The prevention and management of congenital syphilis: an overview and recommendations,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 424–430, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. Dawson and K. R. Brown, “Childhood tuberculosis: a probable case from late mediaeval Somerset, England,” International Journal of Paleopathology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 31–35, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. R. Punnoose, C. Lynm, and R. M. Golub, “Tuberculosis,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 309, no. 9, p. 938, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. World Health Organization, Global Tuberculosis Report 2014, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2014.
  10. R. T. Steinbock, Paleopathological Diagnosis and Interpretation: Bone Diseases in Ancient Human Populations, Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Ill, USA, 1976.
  11. D. J. Ortner, Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 2003.
  12. C. A. Roberts and J. E. Buikstra, The Bioarchaeology of Tuberculosis: A Global View on a Reemerging Disease, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Fla, USA, 2003.
  13. K. L. Holloway, R. J. Henneberg, M. de Barros Lopes, and M. Henneberg, “Evolution of human tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of paleopathological evidence,” HOMO, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 402–458, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. J. Hackett, “An introduction to diagnostic criteria of syphilis, treponarid and yaws (treponematoses) in dry bones, and some implications,” Virchows Archive A: Pathological Anatomy and Histology, vol. 368, no. 3, pp. 229–241, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. N. J. Fiumara and S. Lessell, “Manifestations of late congenital syphilis: an analysis of 271 patients,” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 78–83, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. N. J. Fiumara and S. Lessell, “The stigmata of late congenital syphilis: an analysis of 100 patients,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 126–129, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. L. Holloway, K. Link, F. Rühli, and M. Henneberg, “Skeletal lesions in human tuberculosis may sometimes heal: an aid to palaeopathological diagnoses,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 4, Article ID e62798, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. L. Santos and C. A. Roberts, “A picture of tuberculosis in young Portuguese people in the early 20th century: a multidisciplinary study of the skeletal and historical evidence,” The American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 38–49, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. A. Kelley and M. Y. El-Najjar, “Natural variation and differential diagnosis of skeletal changes in tuberculosis,” The American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 153–167, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. A. Kelley and M. S. Micozzi, “Rib lesions in chronic pulmonary tuberculosis,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 381–386, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. L. Santos and C. A. Roberts, “Anatomy of a serial killer: differential diagnosis of tuberculosis based on rib lesions of adult individuals from the coimbra identified skeletal collection, Portugal,” The American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 38–49, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. Roberts, D. Lucy, and K. Manchester, “Inflammatory lesions of ribs: an analysis of the Terry Collection,” The American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 169–182, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. N. J. Fiumara, W. L. Flemming, J. G. Downing, and F. L. Good, “The incidence of prenatal syphilis at the Boston City Hospital,” The New England journal of medicine, vol. 247, no. 2, pp. 48–52, 1952. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Hutchinson, Syphilis, Cassell & Company, London, UK, 1887.
  25. J. Hutchinson, Syphilis, Cassell & Company, London, UK, 2nd edition, 1909.
  26. W. D. Johnston, B. G. Anderson, and P. F. McAlenney, “Effects of congenital syphilis on the teeth and associated structures in children,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Oral Surgery, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 667–680, 1941. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. B. G. Sarnat and N. G. Shaw, “Dental development in congenital syphilis,” The American Journal of Diseases of Children, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 771–788, 1942. View at Google Scholar
  28. S. Hillson, C. Grigson, and S. Bond, “Dental defects of congenital syphilis,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 25–40, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. A. Freiman, D. Borsuk, B. Barankin, G. H. Sperber, and B. Krafchik, “Dental manifestations of dermatologic conditions,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 289–298, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. L. Pessoa and V. Galvão, “Unusual presentation of more common disease/injury: clinical aspects of congenital syphilis with Hutchinson's triad,” BMJ Case Reports, vol. 2011, pp. 1–3, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. F. Buret, Syphilis in Ancient and Prehistoric Times: Translated from the French, with Notes by A.H Ohmann-Dumesnil, edited by: F. A. Davis, F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1891.
  32. M. S. Claiborne, Hierinymus Fracastor's Syphylis from the Original Latin: A Translation in Prose of This Immortal Poem, The Philmar Company, St. Louis, Mo, USA, 1911.
  33. E. H. Hudson, “Historical approach to the terminology of syphilis,” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 545–562, 1961. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. W. Evans, “Salvarsan in syphilis,” The Lancet, vol. 179, no. 4612, pp. 152–153, 1912. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. G. Stopford-Taylor and R. W. Mackenna, “Salvarsan in the treatment of syphilis,” The Lancet, vol. 177, no. 4578, pp. 1412–1416, 1911. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. “Salvarsan,” The Lancet, vol. 182, no. 4705, pp. 1268–1269, 1913. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. M. Wardle, “Salvarsan,” British Medical Journal, vol. 1, no. 2632, p. 1372, 1911. View at Google Scholar
  38. J. F. Mahoney, R. C. Arnold, and A. D. Harris, “Penicillin treatment of early syphilis: a preliminary report,” American Journal of Public Health and the Nations Health, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1387–1391, 1943. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. S. Sheill, “Our responsibilities in the prevention of inherited syphilis; with illustrative cases,” The Dublin Journal of Medical Science, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 15–22, 1910. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. J. Hutchinson, Illustrations of Clinical Surgery: Consisting of Plates, Photographs, Woodcuts, Diagrams etc., Illustrating Surgical Diseases, Symptoms and Accidents, Also Operative and Other Methods of Treatment, with Descriptive Letterpress, J. & A. Churchill, London, UK, 1878.
  41. F. J. Lambkin, “The treatment of syphilis,” The British Medical Journal, vol. 1, no. 2506, pp. 123–123, 1909. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. “The preparation of finely divided calomel,” The British Medical Journal, vol. 1, no. 3049, p. 713, 1919. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. G. G. Moseley, “Mercury in the treatment of tuberculosis,” California State Journal of Medicine, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 338–340, 1909. View at Google Scholar
  44. B. L. Wright, “The treatment of tuberculosis by the administration of mercury,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. LI, no. 22, pp. 1854–1856, 1908. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. T. J. Anson and M. Henneberg, “A solution for the permanent storage of historical skeletal remains for research purposes: a South Australian precedent that keeps scientists and the Church community happy,” Australian Archaeology, vol. 58, pp. 15–18, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. T. J. Anson, The Bioarchaeology of the St. Mary's Free Ground Burials: Reconstruction of Colonial South Australian Lifeways, Department of Anatomical Sciences, University of Adelaide, 2004.
  47. D. H. Ubelaker, Human Skeletal Remains: Excavation, Analysis, Interpretation, Aldine Publishing Company, Chicago, Ill, USA, 1978.
  48. J. E. Buikstra and D. H. Ubelaker, Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains: Proceedings of a Seminar at the Field Museum of Natural History, Arkansas Archaeological Survey Research Series 44, Arkansas Archeological Survey, Fayetteville, Ark, USA, 1994.
  49. H. Schutkowski, “Sex determination of infant and juvenile skeletons: I. Morphognostic features,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 199–205, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. H. F. V. Cardoso and S. R. Saunders, “Two arch criteria of the ilium for sex determination of immature skeletal remains: a test of their accuracy and an assessment of intra- and inter-observer error,” Forensic Science International, vol. 178, no. 1, pp. 24–29, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. D. Vlak, M. Roksandic, and M. A. Schillaci, “Greater sciatic notch as a sex indicator in juveniles,” The American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 137, no. 3, pp. 309–315, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. S. R. Loth and M. Henneberg, “Sexually dimorphic mandibular morphology in the first few years of life,” The American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 179–186, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. H. Schutkowski, “Sex determination of infant and juvenile skeletons: I. Morphognostic features,” The American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 199–205, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. Coussens, T. Anson, R. M. Norris, and M. Henneberg, “Sexual dimorphism in the robusticity of long bones of infants and young children,” Anthropological Review, vol. 65, pp. 3–16, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  55. M. M. Ash and S. J. Nelson, Wheeler's Dental Anatomy, Physiology, and Occlusion, W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 9th edition, 2003.
  56. D. Armangil, F. E. Canpolat, S. Yigit, H. A. Demir, and M. Ceyhan, “Early congenital syphilis with isolated bone involvement: a case report,” The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 169–171, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. S. Basu and A. Kumar, “Varied presentations of early congenital syphilis,” Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 250–254, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. P. G. Agrawal, R. Joshi, V. D. Kharkar, and M. V. Bhaskar, “Congenital syphilis: the continuing scourge,” Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 143–145, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. M. Dorne and S. J. Zakon, “Enlargement of one sternoclavicular articulation as a valuable clinical sign of late prenatal (congenital) syphilis,” Archive of Dermatology and Syphilology, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 602–604, 1935. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. E. C. Dax and R. M. Stewart, “The sign of the clavicle,” The British Medical Journal, vol. 1, no. 4084, pp. 771–772, 1939. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. S. M. Laird, “Late congenital syphilis; an analysis of 115 cases,” The British Journal of Venereal Diseases, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 143–145, 1950. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. A. R. Ogden, R. Pinhasi, and W. J. White, “Gross enamel hypoplasia in molars from subadults in a 16th—18th century London graveyard,” The American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 133, no. 3, pp. 957–966, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. R. C. V. Robinson, “Congenital syphilis,” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 599–610, 1969. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. B. Liweń and J. Owczarek, “Congenital syphilis in a multiple children family—own case,” Dental and Medical Problems, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 439–442, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. Y. S. Erdal, “A preColumbian case of congenital syphilis from Anatolia (Nicaea, 13th century AD),” International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 16–33, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. K. C. Nystrom, “Postmortem examinations and the embodiment of inequality in 19th century United States,” International Journal of Paleopathology, vol. 1, no. 3-4, pp. 164–172, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. J. S. Gaul and K. Grossschmidt, “A probable case of congenital syphilis from 18th century Vienna,” International Journal of Paleopathology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 34–43, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. K. P. Jacobi, D. C. Cook, R. S. Corruccini, and J. S. Handler, “Congenital syphilis in the past: slaves at Newton Plantation, Barbados, West Indies,” The American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 145–158, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. M. Chaudhary, B. Kashyap, and P. Bhalla, “Congenital syphilis, still a reality in 21st century: a case report,” Journal of Medical Case Reports, vol. 1, article 90, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. N. Chowdhary, B. K. Rani, K. S. Mukunda, and N. K. Kiran, “Early detection of congenital syphilis,” Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 333–337, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. H. E. Teo and W. C. Peh, “Skeletal tuberculosis in children,” Pediatric Radiology, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 853–860, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. E. B. Hoffman, J. Allin, J. A. B. Campbell, and F. M. Leisegang, “Tuberculosis of the knee,” Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research, vol. 398, pp. 100–106, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. C. Guillou-Debuissona, S. Salannea, C. Maréchala, E. Laportea, I. Claudeta, and E. Grouteaua, “Osteoarticular tuberculosis: a differential diagnosis of idiopathic juvenile arthritis,” Archives de Pédiatrie, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 1553–1558, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  74. D. J. Ortner and W. G. J. Putschar, Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1981.
  75. G. Pálfi, Z. Bereczki, D. J. Ortner, and O. Dutour, “Juvenile cases of skeletal tuberculosis from the Terry Anatomical Collection (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., USA),” Acta Biologica Szegediensis, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. M. E. Lewis, “Tuberculosis in the non-adults from Romano-British Poundbury Camp, Dorset, England,” International Journal of Paleopathology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 12–23, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. Y. Teklali, Z. F. El Alami, T. El Madhi, H. Gourinda, and A. Miri, “Peripheral osteoarticular tuberculosis in children: 106 case-reports,” Joint Bone Spine, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 282–286, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. H. S. Hosalkar, N. Agrawal, S. Reddy, K. Sehgal, E. J. Fox, and R. A. Hill, “Skeletal tuberculosis in children in the Western world: 18 new cases with a review of the literature,” Journal of Children's Orthopaedics, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 319–324, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. H. Dabernat and É. Crubézy, “Multiple bone tuberculosis in a child from predynastic Upper Egypt (3200 BC),” International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 719–730, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. V. Formicola, Q. Milanesi, and C. Scarsini, “Evidence of spinal tuberculosis at the beginning of the fourth millennium BC from Arene Candide cave (Liguria, Italy),” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. V. Matos, C. Marques, and C. Lopes, “Severe vertebral collapse in a juvenile from the graveyard (13th/14th-19th centuries) of the São Miguel church (Castelo Branco, Portugal): differential palaeopathological diagnosis,” International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 208–217, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. S. Andronikou, S. Jadwat, and H. Douis, “Patterns of disease on MRI in 53 children with tuberculous spondylitis and the role of gadolinium,” Pediatric Radiology, vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 798–805, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. M. A. Kelley and M. S. Micozzi, “Rib lesions in chronic pulmonary tuberculosis,” The American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 381–386, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. I. Dimitrakopoulos, L. Zouloumis, N. Lazaridis, D. Karakasis, G. Trigonidis, and L. Sichletidis, “Primary tuberculosis of the oral cavity,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology, vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 712–715, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. M. D. Mignogna, L. L. O. Muzio, G. Favia et al., “Oral tuberculosis: a clinical evaluation of 42 cases,” Oral Diseases, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 25–30, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. F. A. Ito, C. R. de Andrade, P. A. Vargas, J. Jorge, and M. A. Lopes, “Primary tuberculosis of the oral cavity,” Oral Diseases, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 50–53, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. F. E. Amick, M. W. Alden, and L. K. Sweet, “Congenital tuberculosis,” Pediatrics, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 384–390, 1950. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. G. H. Kang and J. G. Chi, “Congenital tuberculosis: report of an autopsy case,” Journal of Korean Medical Science, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 59–64, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. R. Figueroa-Damián and J. L. Arredondo-García, “Neonatal outcome of children born to women with tuberculosis,” Archives of Medical Research, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 66–69, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. E. Galanakis, K. L. Bourantas, S. Leveidiotou, and P. D. Lapatsanis, “Childhood brucellosis in north-western Greece: a retrospective analysis,” European Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 155, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. M. F. Geyik, A. Gür, K. Nas et al., “Musculoskeletal involvement in brucellosis in different age groups: a study of 195 cases,” Swiss Medical Weekly, vol. 132, no. 7-8, pp. 98–104, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. M. P. Franco, M. Mulder, R. H. Gilman, and H. L. Smits, “Human brucellosis,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 775–786, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. M. C. Bouaziz, M. F. Ladeb, M. Chakroun, and S. Chaabane, “Spinal brucellosis: a review,” Skeletal Radiology, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 785–790, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. Y. A. Al-Eissa, A. M. Kambal, A. A. Alrabeeah, A. M. A. Abdullah, N. A. Al-Jurayyan, and N. M. Al-Jishi, “Osteoarticular brucellosis in children,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 896–900, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. S. Mays, M. Brickley, and R. Ives, “Skeletal manifestation of rickets in infants and young children in a historic population from England,” The American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 129, no. 3, pp. 362–374, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. S. Mays, M. Brickley, and R. Ives, “Growth and vitamin D deficiency in a population from 19th century Birmingham, England,” International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 406–415, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. D. J. Ortner and S. Mays, “Dry-bone manifestations of rickets in infancy and early childhood,” International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 45–55, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. H. M. Mackay, “Vitiman D defficency, dental caries and tonsillar enlargemnt: a clinical investigation of some late effects of rickets,” The Lancet, vol. 218, no. 5649, pp. 1230–1235, 1931. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. M. M. Eliot, S. P. Souther, B. G. Anderson, and S. S. Arnim, “A study of the teeth of a group of school children previously examined for ricket,” The American Journal of Diseases of Children, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 713–729, 1934. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  100. W. K. Seow, J. P. Brown, D. A. Tudehope, and M. O'Callaghan, “Dental defects in the deciduous dentition of premature infants with low birth weight and neonatal rickets,” Pediatric Dentistry, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 88–92, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. J. Littleton, “Paleopathology of skeletal fluorosis,” The American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 109, no. 4, pp. 465–483, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  102. I. J. Møller, “Fluorides and dental fluorosis,” International Dental Journal, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 135–147, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. J. Littleton and B. Frohlich, “An Analysis of dental pathology and diet on historic Bahrain,” Paléorient, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 59–75, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  104. J. Zou and J. W. Ashley, “Fluorosis,” in Pathobiology of Human Disease, L. M. M. N. Mitchell, Ed., pp. 893–898, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  105. M. Teotia, S. P. S. Teotia, and K. B. Kunwar, “Endemic skeletal fluorosis,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 46, no. 249, pp. 686–691, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. J. M. Pettifor, C. M. Schnitzler, F. P. Ross, and G. P. Moodley, “Endemic skeletal fluorosis in children: hypocalcemia and the presence of renal resistance to parathyroid hormone,” Bone and Mineral, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 275–288, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. Y. Wang, Y. Yin, L. A. Gilula, and A. J. Wilson, “Endemic fluorosis of the skeleton: radiographic features in 127 patients,” The American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 162, no. 1, pp. 93–98, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. J. Davies, A Pioneer Walk through the Churchyard of St. Mary's, South Road, St. Mary's Church, Adelaide, Australia, 1991.