Table of Contents
Journal of Anthropology
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 3597297, 14 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3597297
Review Article

From Rural to Urban: Archaeological Research in the Periphery of Huari, Ayacucho Valley, Peru

1MacEwan University, Edmonton, AB, Canada
2Universidad de Huamanga, Ayacucho, Peru

Correspondence should be addressed to Lidio M. Valdez; se.oohay@9oidil

Received 12 July 2016; Accepted 16 October 2016; Published 13 February 2017

Academic Editor: Benjamin Campbell

Copyright © 2017 Lidio M. Valdez and J. Ernesto Valdez. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. S. Chesson and N. Goodale, “Population aggregation, residential storage and socioeconomic inequality at Early Bronze Age Numayra, Jordan,” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 117–134, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. L. Cowgill, “Origins and development of urbanism: archaeological perspectives,” Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 33, pp. 525–549, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. M. Adams, “Ancient mesopotamian urbanism and blurred disciplinary boundaries,” Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 41, pp. 1–20, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. L. Smith, “The archaeology of urban landscapes,” Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 43, pp. 307–323, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. Geddes, Cities in Evolution, Williams and Norgate, London, UK, 1949.
  6. M. Batty, The Emergence of Cities: Complexity and Urban Dynamics, vol. 64 of Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis Working Paper Series, University College of London, London, UK, 2003.
  7. D. S. Dendrinos and H. Mullally, Urban Evolution: Studies in the Mathematical Ecology of Cities, Donnan, Christopher B, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1985.
  8. C. Goucher, C. LeGuin, and L. Walton, In the Balance: Themes in World History, McGraw-Hill, Boston, Mass, USA, 1998.
  9. K. V. Flannery, “The cultural evolution of civilizations,” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 399–426, 1972. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. C. M. Sinopoli, “The archaeology of empires,” Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 159–180, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. K. Makowski, “Andean urbanism,” in Handbook of South American Archaeology, H. Silverman and W. H. Isbell, Eds., pp. 633–657, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  12. H. Isbell William, “Wari and Tiwanaku: international identities in the Central Andean Middle Horizon,” in Handbook of South American Archaeology, H. Silverman and W. H. Isbell, Eds., pp. 731–759, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  13. C. Stanish, “The origin of state societies in South America,” Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 30, pp. 41–64, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. M. A. Adams and E. W. Richard, The Evolution of Urban Society: Early Mesopotamia and Prehispanic Mexico, Aldine Publishing Company, Chicago, Ill, USA, 1966.
  15. R. Adams, “Spatial and temporal patterns of early urbanization,” in The Uruk Countryside: the Natural Setting of Urban Societies, R. Adams and H. J. Nissen, Eds., pp. 9–33, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill, USA, 1972. View at Google Scholar
  16. R. E. Blanton, S. A. Kowalewski, G. M. Feinman, and L. M. Finsten, Ancient Mesoamerica: A Comparison of Change in Three Regions, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2nd edition, 1993.
  17. G. L. Cowgill, “State and society at Teotihuacan, Mexico,” Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 26, pp. 129–161, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. V. Flannery and J. Marcus, “The origin of war: new 14C dates from ancient Mexico,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 100, no. 20, pp. 11801–11805, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. V. Flannery and J. Marcus, The Creation of Inequality: How Our Prehistoric Ancestors Set the Stage for Monarchy, Slavery, and Empire, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2012.
  20. J. R. Mcintosh, Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspectives, ABC-CLIO Corporate, Santa Barbara, Calif, USA, 2005.
  21. H. J. Nissen, “Uruk: key site of the period and key site of the problem,” in Artifacts of Complexity: Tracking the Uruk in the Near East, J. N. Postgate, Ed., pp. 1–17, British School of Archaeology in Iraq, London, UK, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  22. H. T. Wright and G. A. Johnson, “Population, exchange, and early state formation in southwestern Iran,” American Anthropologist, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 267–289, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. H. T. Wright, “Toward an explanation of the origin of the state,” in Explanation of Prehistoric Change, J. Hill, Ed., pp. 215–230, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM, USA, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  24. V. G. Childe, Man Makes Himself, The New American Library of World Literature, INC, London, UK, 1951.
  25. J. H. Rowe, D. Collier, and G. R. Willey, “Reconnaissance notes on the site of Huari, near Ayacucho, Peru,” American Antiquity, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 120–137, 1950. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. L. G. Lumbreras, “La cultura Wari,” Etnología y Arqueología, vol. 1, pp. 130–227, 1960, Instituto de Etnología y Arqueología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima. View at Google Scholar
  27. L. G. Lumbreras, “Introduction,” in Wari, Lords of the Ancient Andes, L. E. Oscar, Ed., pp. 1–3, The Cleveland Museum of Art and Thames and Hudson, New York, NY, USA, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  28. W. H. Isbell, “Reconstructing Huari: a cultural chronology for the capital city,” in Emergence and Change in Early Urban Societies, L. Manzanilla, Ed., pp. 181–227, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  29. J. Schreiber Katharina, “The Wari Empire of Middle Horizon Peru: the epistemological challenge of documenting an empire without documentary evidence,” in Empires, S. E. Alcock, T. N. D'Altroy, K. D. Morrison, and C. M. Sinopoli, Eds., pp. 70–92, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  30. L. G. Lumbreras, “El Imperio Wari,” in Historiad el Perú, vol. 2, pp. 9–91, Editorial Juan Mejia Baca, Lima, Peru, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  31. H. Isbell William, “Huari urban prehistory,” in Current Archaeological Projects in the Central Andes, A. Kendall, Ed., vol. 210 of British Archaeological Reports International Series, pp. 95–135, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  32. W. H. Isbell, “City and state in Middle Horizon Peru,” in Peruvian Prehistory, R. Keatinge, Ed., pp. 164–189, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  33. W. H. Isbell and K. J. Schreiber, “Was Huari a state?” American Antiquity, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 372–389, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. L. G. Lumbreras, The Peoples and Cultures of Ancient Peru, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1974.
  35. L. G. Lumbreras, Las Fundaciones de Huamanga: Hacia una Prehistoria de Ayacucho, Club de Huamanga, Lima, Peru, 1975.
  36. J. H. Rowe, “Urban settlements in Ancient Peru,” Nawpa Pacha, vol. 1, pp. 1–28, 1963. View at Google Scholar
  37. D. Menzel, “Style and time in the Middle Horizon,” Ñawpa Pacha, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–105, 1964. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. K. J. Schreiber, Wari Imperialism in Middle Horizon Peru, vol. 87 of Museum of Anthropology, Anthropological Papers, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich, USA, 1992.
  39. K. J. Schreiber, “The rise of an Andean Empire,” in Wari, Lords of the Ancient Andes, L. E. Oscar, Ed., pp. 31–45, The Cleveland Museum of Art and Thames and Hudson, New York, NY, USA, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  40. L. G. Lumbreras, Plan de Manejo Del Complejo Arqueológico Wari, Ayacucho, Gobierno Regional de Ayacucho, Plan Copesco Nacional, Ayacucho, Peru, 2010.
  41. W. H. Isbell and M. Young-Sánchez, “Wari's Andean legacy,” in Wari, Lords of the Ancient Andes, L. E. Oscar, Ed., pp. 251–267, The Cleveland Museum of Art and Thames and Hudson, New York, NY, USA, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  42. W. H. Isbell, “Conchopata, ideological innovator in Middle Horizon 1A,” in Ñawpa Pacha, pp. 22-23; 91–134, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  43. W. H. Isbell and A. G. Cook, “Ideological origins of an Andean conquest state,” Archaeology, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 27–33, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  44. W. H. Isbell and P. J. Knobloch, “SAIS-the origin, development, and dating of Tiahuanaco-Huari iconography,” in Tiwanaku: Papers from the 2005 Mayer Center Symposium a the Denver Art Museum, M. Young-Sánchez, Ed., pp. 165–210, Denver Art Museum, Boulder, Colo, USA, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  45. G. Cook Anita, “The coming of the staff deity,” in Wari, Lords of the Ancient Andes, L. E. Oscar, Ed., pp. 103–121, The Cleveland Museum of Art and Thames and Hudson, New York, NY, USA, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  46. J. H. Rowe, “Archaeological explorations in southern peru, 1954-1955,” American Antiquity, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 135–151, 1956. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. K. J. Schreiber, “From state to empire: the expansion of the Wari State outside the Ayacucho Basin,” in The Origins and Development of the Andean State, J. Haas, S. Pozorski, and T. Pozorski, Eds., pp. 91–96, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  48. G. F. McEwan, “Investigations at the Pikillacta Site: a provincial Huari center in the Valley of Cuzco,” in Huari Administrative Structure: Prehistoric Monumental Architecture and State Government, W. H. Isbell and G. F. McEwan, Eds., pp. 93–119, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC, USA, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  49. G. F. McEwan, “Archaeological investigations at pikillacta, a wari site in peru,” Journal of Field Archaeology, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 169–186, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. G. F. McEwan, Pikillacta: The Wari Empire in Cusco, University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, Iowa, USA, 2005.
  51. G. F. McEwan and P. R. Williams, “The Wari built environment: landscape and architecture of empire,” in Wari, Lords of the Ancient Andes, L. E. Oscar, Ed., pp. 65–81, The Cleveland Museum of Art and Thames and Hudson, New York, NY, USA, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  52. D. Nash and R. P. Williams, “Wari political organization on the southern periphery,” in Andean Civilization: A Tribute to Michael E. Moseley, J. Marcus and P. R. Williams, Eds., pp. 257–276, Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press, UCLA, Los Angeles, Calif, USA, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  53. L. M. Valdez and J. E. Valdez, “Highland and coastal cultural interaction: new evidence from the ancient city of Huari, Ayacucho, Peru,” in Proceedings of the 46th Annual Chacmool Archaeology Conference, Trading Spaces: The Archaeology of Interaction, Migration and Exchange, University of Calgary, November 2013.
  54. P. Cieza de León, [1553] La Crónica del Perú, Ediciones PEISA Biblioteca Peruana, Lima, Peru, 1973.
  55. W. H. Isbell and G. F. McEwan, “A history of Huari studies and introduction to current interpretations,” in Huari Administrative Structure: Prehistoric Monumental Architecture and State Government, W. H. Isbell and G. F. McEwan, Eds., pp. 1–17, Washington, DC, USA, Dumbarton Oaks, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  56. A. L. Kroeber, Peruvian Archaeology in 1942, Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology 4, Wenner-Green Foundation for Anthropological Research, New York, NY, USA, 1944.
  57. G. R. Willey, “A functional analysis of ‘Horizon Styles’ in Peruvian archaeology,” in A Reappraisal of Peruvian Archaeology, W. C. Bennett, Ed., vol. 13, no. 4, part 2 of Memoirs of the Society for American Archaeology, pp. 8–15, Society for American Archaeology, 1948. View at Google Scholar
  58. W. C. Bennett and J. B. Bird, Andean Culture History, The American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, USA, 1949.
  59. W. H. Isbell, “Conclusion: Huari administration and the orthogonal cellular architecture horizon,” in Huari Administrative Structure: Prehistoric Monumental Architecture and State Government, W. H. Isbell and G. F. McEwan, Eds., pp. 293–315, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC, USA, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  60. W. C. Bennett, Excavations at Wari, Ayacucho, Peru, Yale University Publications in Anthropology 49, Yale University Press, 1953.
  61. M. Benavides, “Cheqo Wasi, Wari,” in Huari Administrative Structure: Prehistoric Monumental Architecture and State Government, W. H. Isbell and G. F. McEwan, Eds., pp. 55–70, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC, USA, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  62. E. Bragayrac, “Archaeological excavations in the Vegachayoq Sector of Wari,” in Huari Administrative Structure: Prehistoric Monumental Architecture and State Government, W. H. Isbell and G. F. McEwan, Eds., Chesson, Meredith S. and Nathan Goodale, pp. 71–80, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC, USA, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  63. W. H. Isbell, C. Brewster-Wray, and A. Lynda, “Architecture and spatial organization at Huari,” in Huari Administrative Structure: Prehistoric Monumental Architecture and State Government, W. H. Isbell and G. F. McEwan, Eds., pp. 19–54, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC, USA, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  64. M. Benavides, Caracter del Estado Wari, Universidad de Huamanga, Ayacucho, Peru, 1984.
  65. J. A. Ochatoma and M. Cabrera, “Descubrimientos del área ceremonial de Conchopata, Huari,” in XII Congreso Peruano del Hombre y la Cultura Andina Luis G. Lumbreras, vol. 1, pp. 212–245, Universidad Nacional de San Cristóbal de Huamanga, Ayacucho, Peru, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  66. I. Pérez Calderón, “Investigaciones en la periferia del complejo Huari,” in XII Congreso Peruano del Hombre y la Cultura Andina Luis G. Lumbreras, vol. 2, pp. 246–270, Universidad Nacional de San Cristóbal de Huamanga, Ayacucho, Peru, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  67. L. M. Valdez, “Variabilidad y función de la cerámica del sitio Wari de Marayniyoq, Ayacucho, Perú,” Arqueología y Sociedad, vol. 15, pp. 61–92, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  68. L. M. Valdez, “Maize beer production in Middle Horizon Peru,” Journal of Anthropological Research, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 53–80, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. L. M. Valdez, K. J. Bettcher, and J. Ernesto Valdez, “Una cámara funeraria en Seqllas, Valle de Ayacucho,” Boletín del Museo de Arqueología y Antropología, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 2–7, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  70. L. M. Valdez and J. Ernesto Valdez, “Inkapyarqan: un canal en las punas de Ayacucho,” Boletín del Museo de Arqueología y Antropología, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 4–9, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  71. P. Kaulicke and W. H. Isbel, Eds., Huari y Tiwanaku: Modelos vs. Evidencias. Departamento de Humanidades, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima, Peru, 2001.
  72. M. Glowacki, “The Huaro archaeological site complex: rethinking the Huari occupation of Cuzco,” in Andean Archaeology I: Variation and Sociopolitical Organization, W. H. Isbell and H. Silverman, Eds., pp. 267–284, Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, NY, USA, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  73. M. Glowacki, “Shattered ceramics and offerings,” in Wari, Lords of the Ancient Andes, L. E. Oscar, Ed., pp. 145–157, The Cleveland Museum of Art and Thames and Hudson, New York, NY, USA, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  74. P. R. Williams, “Cerro Baúl: a Wari center in the Tiwanaku frontier,” Latin American Antiquity, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 67–83, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. M. Benavides, Sitios Arqueológicos de Ayacucho, Universidad de Huamanga, Ayacucho, Peru, 1976.
  76. S. MacNeish Richard, “Synthesis and conclusions,” in Prehistory of the Ayacucho Basin, Peru, Vol II: Excavations and Chronology, R. S. MacNeish, Ed., pp. 199–257, R. S. Peabody Foundation for Archaeology. The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Mich, USA, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  77. P. J. Knobloch, An Early Intermediate Period Deposit of Huarpa Style Ceramics from the Site of Huari, Arkeo Ayacucho Peru, Department of Ayacucho, Peru, 2013.
  78. P. R. Williams and D. Nash, “Imperial interactions in the Andes: Wari and Tiwanaku at Cerro Baúl,” in Andean Archaeology I: Variation and Sociopolitical Organization, W. H. Isbell and H. Silverman, Eds., pp. 243–265, Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, NY, USA, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  79. L. G. Lumbreras, “Esquema arqueológico de la sierra central del Peru,” Revista del Museo Nacional, vol. 28, pp. 64–117, 1959. View at Google Scholar
  80. L. M. Valdez, “The early intermediate period beyond the Ayacucho Valley, Peru,” in Debating Complexity, D. Meyer, P. Dawson, and D. Hannan, Eds., pp. 600–606, The Archaeological Association of the University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  81. L. M. Valdez, “Ecology and ceramic production in an Andean community: a reconsideration of the evidence,” Journal of Anthropological Research, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 65–85, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. P. J. Knobloch, “Stylistic date of ceramics from the Huari centers,” in Huari Administrative Structure: Prehistoric Monumental Architecture and State Government, W. H. Isbell and G. F. McEwan, Eds., pp. 247–258, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC, USA, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  83. D. A. Proulx, A Source Book of Nasca Iconography, University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, Iowa, USA, 2006.
  84. J. Knobloch Patricia, “Archives in clay the styles and stories of Wari ceramic artists,” in Wari, Lords of the Ancient Andes, L. E. Oscar, Ed., pp. 122–142, The Cleveland Museum of Art and Thames and Hudson, New York, NY, USA, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  85. D. A. Proulx, “Stylistic variation in proliferous Nasca pottery,” Andean Past, vol. 4, pp. 91–107, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  86. S. A. LeBlanc, “Warfare and the development of social complexity,” in The Archaeology of Warfare: Prehistories of Raiding and Conquest, E. N. Arkush and M. W. Allen, Eds., pp. 437–468, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Fla, USA, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  87. R. B. Haymes, “The settlement patterns of the Yanomamo population block: a behavioral ecological interpretation,” in Adaptive Responses of Native Amazonians, R. B. Haymes and W. T. Vickers, Eds., pp. 393–427, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  88. M. Elliott, “Evaluating evidence for warfare and environmental stress in settlement pattern data from the Malpaso valley, Zacatecas, Mexico,” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 297–315, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. K. J. Schreiber, “Regional approaches to the study of prehistoric empires: examples from Ayacucho and Nasca, Peru,” in Settlement Pattern Studies in the Americas: Fifty Years Since Virú, B. R. Billman and G. M. Feinman, Eds., pp. 160–171, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  90. P. Roscoe, “Settlement fortification in village and “Tribal” society: evidence from contact-era New Guinea,” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 507–519, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. I. Pérez Calderón, “Asentamientos periféricos del centro urbano de Conchopata, Ayacucho,” Arqueología y Sociedad, vol. 25, pp. 143–168, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  92. J. B. Leoni, “Ritual and society in early intermediate period ayacucho: a view from Ñawinpukyo,” in Andean Archaeology III: North and South, W. H. Isbell and H. Silverman, Eds., pp. 279–306, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  93. J. B. Leoni, “Early intermediate period and middle horizon funerary practices in Ayacucho: a view from the site of Ñawinpukyo,” Ñawpa Pacha, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 65–90, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  94. B. G. Trigger, “Monumental architecture: a thermodynamic explanation of symbolic behaviour,” World Archaeology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 119–132, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  95. M. W. Allen and E. N. Arkush, “Introduction: archaeology and the study of war,” in The Archaeology of Warfare: Prehistoric Raiding and Conquest, E. N. Arkush and M. W. Allen, Eds., pp. 1–19, University of Florida Press, Gainesville, Fla, USA, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  96. E. Arkush and C. Stanish, “Interpreting conflict in the ancient Andes: implications for the archaeology of warfare,” Current Anthropology, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 3–28, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. E. M. Redmond and C. S. Spencer, “From raiding to conquest: warfare strategies and early state development in Oaxaca, Mexico,” in The Archaeology of Warfare: Prehistories of Raiding and Conquest, E. N. Arkush and M. W. Allen, Eds., pp. 336–393, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Fla, USA, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  98. B. C. Finucane, “Trophy heads from Nawinpukio, Perú: physical and chemical analysis of Huarpa-era modified human remains,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 135, no. 1, pp. 75–84, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. T. A. Tung, Violence, Ritual and the Wari Empire: A Social Bioarchaeology of Imperialism in the Ancient Andes, University of Florida Press, Gainesville, Fla, USA, 2012.
  100. T. A. Tung and K. J. Knudson, “Identifying locals, migrants, and captives in the Wari Heartland: a bioarchaeological and biogeochemical study of human remains from Conchopata, Peru,” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 247–261, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. E. R. Leach, Political Systems of Highland Burma: A Study of Kachin Social Structure, vol. 44 of London School of Economics, Monographs in Social Anthropology, The Athlone Press, London, UK, 1990.
  102. D. A. Proulx, “Ritual uses of trophy heads in ancient Nasca society,” in Ritual Sacrifice in Ancient Peru, E. Benson and A. Cook, Eds., pp. 119–136, University of Texas Press, Austin, Tex, USA, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  103. L. M. Valdez, “Walled settlements, buffer zones, and human decapitation in the Acari Valley, Peru,” Journal of Anthropological Research, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 389–416, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. B. Eitel and B. Mätchel, “Man and environment in the eastern Atacama Desert (southern Peru): holocene climate changes and their impact on pre-Columbian cultures,” in New Technologies for Archaeology: Multidisciplinary Investigations in Palpa and Nasca, Peru, M. Reindel and G. A. Wagner, Eds., pp. 17–37, Spinger, Berlin, Germany, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  105. C. A. Conlee, “Nasca culture integration and complexity: a perspective from the site of La Tiza,” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 234–247, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. V. Sossna, Impacts of Climate Variability on Prehispanic Settlement Behavior in South Peru: the northern Rio Grande drainage between 15000 BCE and 1532 CE [Ph.D. dissertation der Mathematisch], Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel vorgelegt von, Bonn, Germany, 2014.
  107. L. M. Valdez and J. Taboada, “The use of coca leaves in the Peruvian central highlands before the Inka,” in Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Midwest Conference on Andean and Amazonian Archaeology and Ethnohistory, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wis, USA, March 2014.
  108. H. Silverman and D. A. Proulx, The Nasca, Blackwell, Massachusetts, Mass, USA, 2002.
  109. I. Shimada, T. Baba, K. Shinoda, and M. Ono, Eds., Nasca, Wonder of the World. Messages Etched on the Desert Floor, Broadcasting System and National Science Museum, Tokyo, Japan, 2006.
  110. M. A. Towle, The Ethnobotany of Pre-Columbian Peru, Aldine Transaction, London, UK, 2007.
  111. E. P. Benson, The Worlds of the Moche on the North Coast of Peru, University of Texas Press, Austin, Tex, USA, 2012.
  112. C. B. Donnan, Moche Art and Iconography, vol. 33 of Moche Art and Iconography. Latin American Studies Publication, University of California, Los Angeles, Calif, USA, 1976.
  113. T. Plowman, “Botanical perspectives on coca,” Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, vol. 11, no. 1-2, pp. 103–117, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. C. Millon, “Painting, writing, and polity in Teotihuacan, Mexico,” American Antiquity, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 294–314, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  115. R. E. W. Adams, Prehistoric Mesoamerica, Little, Brown and Company, Boston, Mass, USA, 1977.
  116. S. Pallock, Ancient Mesopotamia, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1999.
  117. L. G. Lumbreras, Una Nueva Visión Del Antiguo Perú, Municipalidad de Lima, Lima, Peru, 1986.
  118. J. Marcus, “The archaeological evidence for social evolution,” Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 37, pp. 251–266, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. K. V. Flannery, “The origins of the village revisited: from nuclear to extended households,” American Antiquity, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 417–433, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus