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Journal of Botany
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 135479, 4 pages
Review Article

Phytotoxicity: An Overview of the Physiological Responses of Plants Exposed to Fungicides

Department of Biology & Center for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), University of Aveiro, 3810 Aveiro, Portugal

Received 15 October 2011; Revised 5 January 2012; Accepted 26 January 2012

Academic Editor: Helena Oliveira

Copyright © 2012 Maria Celeste Dias. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In the last decades, the use of fungicides in agriculture for fungi diseases control has become crucial. Fungicide research has produced a diverse range of products with novel modes of action. However, the extensive use of these compounds in the agriculture system raises public concern because of the harmful potential of such substances in the environment and human health. Moreover, the phytotoxic effects of some fungicides are already recognized but little is known about the impact of these compounds on the photosynthetic apparatus. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the literature considering different classes of fungicides and their effects on plant physiology, with particular emphasis on photosynthesis.