Table of Contents
Journal of Biomarkers
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 8160393, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8160393
Review Article

The Predictive Role of Inflammatory Biomarkers in Atrial Fibrillation as Seen through Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio Mirror

Department of Medicine, Clínica Girassol, Luanda, Angola

Received 18 March 2016; Revised 20 May 2016; Accepted 23 May 2016

Academic Editor: Mark Molloy

Copyright © 2016 Feliciano Chanana Paquissi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. S. Chugh, R. Havmoeller, K. Narayanan et al., “Worldwide epidemiology of atrial fibrillation: a global burden of disease 2010 study,” Circulation, vol. 129, no. 8, pp. 837–847, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. Ball, M. J. Carrington, J. J. V. McMurray, and S. Stewart, “Atrial fibrillation: profile and burden of an evolving epidemic in the 21st century,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 167, no. 5, pp. 1807–1824, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. S. Go, E. M. Hylek, K. A. Phillips et al., “Prevalence of diagnosed atrial fibrillation in adults: national implications for rhythm management and stroke prevention: the anticoagulation and risk factors in atrial fibrillation (ATRIA) study,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 285, no. 18, pp. 2370–2375, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. B. Schnabel, X. Yin, P. Gona et al., “50 Year trends in atrial fibrillation prevalence, incidence, risk factors, and mortality in the Framingham Heart Study: a cohort study,” The Lancet, vol. 386, no. 9989, pp. 154–162, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators, “Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990—2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013,” The Lancet, vol. 385, no. 9963, pp. 117–171, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. K.-L. Chien, T.-C. Su, H.-C. Hsu et al., “Atrial fibrillation prevalence, incidence and risk of stroke and all-cause death among Chinese,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 173–180, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. Marini, F. De Santis, S. Sacco et al., “Contribution of atrial fibrillation to incidence and outcome of ischemic stroke: results from a population-based study,” Stroke, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1115–1119, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. D. M. Engelmann and J. H. Svendsen, “Inflammation in the genesis and perpetuation of atrial fibrillation,” European Heart Journal, vol. 26, no. 20, pp. 2083–2092, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Y.-F. Hu, Y.-J. Chen, Y.-J. Lin, and S.-A. Chen, “Inflammation and the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation,” Nature Reviews Cardiology, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 230–243, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. R. J. Aviles, D. O. Martin, C. Apperson-Hansen et al., “Inflammation as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation,” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 24, pp. 3006–3010, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. S. G. Conway, P. Buggins, E. Hughes, and G. Y. H. Lip, “Relationship of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein to the prothrombotic state in chronic atrial fibrillation,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 2075–2082, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. T. T. Issac, H. Dokainish, and N. M. Lakkis, “Role of inflammation in initiation and perpetuation of atrial fibrillation. a systematic review of the published data,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 50, no. 21, pp. 2021–2028, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Harada, D. R. Van Wagoner, and S. Nattel, “Role of inflammation in atrial fibrillation pathophysiology and management,” Circulation Journal, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 495–502, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. L. You, P. Wang, J. Lv, K. Cianflone, D. Wang, and C. Zhao, “The role of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and cystatin C in ischemic stroke complicating atrial fibrillation,” Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 648–651, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. Y.-J. Lin, H.-M. Tsao, S.-L. Chang et al., “Prognostic implications of the high-sensitive C-reactive protein in the catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 105, no. 4, pp. 495–501, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. S. G. Conway, P. Buggins, E. Hughes, and G. Y. H. Lip, “Prognostic significance of raised plasma levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein in atrial fibrillation,” American Heart Journal, vol. 148, no. 3, pp. 462–466, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. G. Targher, F. Valbusa, S. Bonapace et al., “Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with an increased incidence of atrial fibrillation in patients with type 2 diabetes,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 2, Article ID e57183, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. H. Watanabe, N. Tanabe, T. Watanabe et al., “Metabolic syndrome and risk of development of atrial fibrillation: the Niigata preventive medicine study,” Circulation, vol. 117, no. 10, pp. 1255–1260, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. M. Chamberlain, S. K. Agarwal, M. Ambrose, A. R. Folsom, E. Z. Soliman, and A. Alonso, “Metabolic syndrome and incidence of atrial fibrillation among blacks and whites in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study,” American Heart Journal, vol. 159, no. 5, pp. 850–856, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. G. Ertaş, O. Sönmez, M. Turfan et al., “Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio is associated with thromboembolic stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 324, no. 1-2, pp. 49–52, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. P. H. Gibson, B. H. Cuthbertson, B. L. Croal et al., “Usefulness of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio as predictor of new-onset atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass grafting,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 186–191, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. B. D. Horne, J. L. Anderson, J. M. John et al., “Which white blood cell subtypes predict increased cardiovascular risk?” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 1638–1643, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Y. Arbel, A. Finkelstein, A. Halkin et al., “Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio is related to the severity of coronary artery disease and clinical outcome in patients undergoing angiography,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 225, no. 2, pp. 456–460, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. Tokgoz, M. Kayrak, Z. Akpinar, A. Seyithanoğlu, F. Güney, and B. Yürüten, “Neutrophil lymphocyte ratio as a predictor of stroke,” Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 1169–1174, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. Chatterjee, P. Chandra, G. Guha et al., “Pre-procedural elevated white blood cell count and neutrophil- lymphocyte (N/L) ratio are predictors of ventricular arrhythmias during percutaneous coronary intervention,” Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders-Drug Targets, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 58–60, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. H. Nikoo, S. R. Taghavian, H. Golmoghaddam, N. Arandi, A. A. Ardekani, and M. Doroudchi, “Increased IL-17A in atrial fibrillation correlates with neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio,” Iranian Journal of Immunology, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 246–258, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. C. W. Marott, B. G. Nordestgaard, J. Zacho et al., “Does elevated C-reactive protein increase atrial fibrillation risk? A mendelian randomization of 47,000 individuals from the general population,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 789–795, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. K. Chung, D. O. Martin, D. Sprecher et al., “C-reactive protein elevation in patients with atrial arrhythmias: inflammatory mechanisms and persistence of atrial fibrillation,” Circulation, vol. 104, no. 24, pp. 2886–2891, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. M. Peña, J. MacFadyen, R. J. Glynn, and P. M. Ridker, “High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, statin therapy, and risks of atrial fibrillation: an exploratory analysis of the JUPITER trial,” European Heart Journal, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 531–537, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. W. T. O'Neal, E. Z. Soliman, G. Howard et al., “Inflammation and hemostasis in atrial fibrillation and coronary heart disease: the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke study,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 243, no. 1, pp. 192–197, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. K. Thambidorai, K. Parakh, D. O. Martin et al., “Relation of C-reactive protein correlates with risk of thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 805–807, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. E. Watanabe, T. Arakawa, T. Uchiyama, I. Kodama, and H. Hishida, “High-sensitivity C-reactive protein is predictive of successful cardioversion for atrial fibrillation and maintenance of sinus rhythm after conversion,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 346–353, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. F. Malouf, R. Kanagala, F. O. Al Atawi et al., “High sensitivity C-reactive protein: a novel predictor for recurrence of atrial fibrillation after successful cardioversion,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 1284–1287, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. S. G. Conway, P. Buggins, E. Hughes, and G. Y. H. Lip, “Relation of interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and the prothrombotic state to transesophageal echocardiographic findings in atrial fibrillation,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 93, no. 11, pp. 1368–1373, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. L. Amdur, M. Mukherjee, A. Go et al., “Interleukin-6 is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation in chronic kidney disease: findings from the CRIC study,” PLoS ONE, vol. 11, no. 2, Article ID e0148189, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. Y. Luan, Y. Guo, S. Li et al., “Interleukin-18 among atrial fibrillation patients in the absence of structural heart disease,” Europace, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 1713–1718, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. V. Roldán, F. Marín, J. Díaz et al., “High sensitivity cardiac troponin T and interleukin-6 predict adverse cardiovascular events and mortality in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1500–1507, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Fujiki, T. Sakamoto, K. Nishida, K. Mizumaki, and H. Inoue, “Relation of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels to sinus maintenance after pharmacological cardioversion in persistent atrial fibrillation,” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 264–266, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. N. Psychari, T. S. Apostolou, L. Sinos, E. Hamodraka, G. Liakos, and D. T. Kremastinos, “Relation of elevated C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels to left atrial size and duration of episodes in patients with atrial fibrillation,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 764–767, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. G. Y. H. Lip, J. V. Patel, E. Hughes, and R. G. Hart, “High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and soluble CD40 ligand as indices of inflammation and platelet activation in 880 patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: relationship to stroke risk factors, stroke risk stratification schema, and prognosis,” Stroke, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 1229–1237, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. T. Liu, G. Li, L. Li, and P. Korantzopoulos, “Association between C-reactive protein and recurrence of atrial fibrillation after successful electrical cardioversion. a meta-analysis,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 49, no. 15, pp. 1642–1648, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. K. M. A. Henningsen, S. K. Therkelsen, H. Bruunsgaard, K. S. Krabbe, B. K. Pedersen, and J. H. Svendsen, “Prognostic impact of hs-CRP and IL-6 in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation treated with electrical cardioversion,” Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 425–432, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. K. M. A. Henningsen, B. Nilsson, H. Bruunsgaard, X. Chen, B. K. Pedersen, and J. H. Svendsen, “Prognostic impact of hs-CRP and IL-6 in patients undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation,” Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 285–291, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. C. Cianfrocca, M. L. Loricchio, F. Pelliccia et al., “C-reactive protein and left atrial appendage velocity are independent determinants of the risk of thrombogenesis in patients with atrial fibrillation,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 142, no. 1, pp. 22–28, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. T. Maehama, H. Okura, K. Imai et al., “Usefulness of CHADS2 score to predict C-reactive protein, left atrial blood stasis, and prognosis in patients with nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 106, no. 4, pp. 535–538, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. O. O. Celebi, S. Celebi, A. Canbay, G. Ergun, S. Aydogdu, and E. Diker, “The effect of sinus rhythm restoration on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels and their association with long-term atrial fibrillation recurrence after electrical cardioversion,” Cardiology, vol. 118, no. 3, pp. 168–174, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. Liu, P.-H. Fang, S. Dibs, Y. Hou, X.-F. Li, and S. Zhang, “High-sensitivity C-reactive protein as a predictor of atrial fibrillation recurrence after primary circumferential pulmonary vein isolation,” Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 398–406, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. K. Kim, J. H. Park, J. Y. Kim et al., “High plasma concentrations of transforming growth factor-β and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1: potential non-invasive predictors for electroanatomical remodeling of atrium in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation,” Circulation Journal, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 557–564, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. T. Kinoshita, T. Asai, N. Takashima et al., “Preoperative C-reactive protein and atrial fibrillation after off-pump coronary bypass surgery,” European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1298–1303, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. Hermida, F. L. Lopez, R. Montes, K. Matsushita, B. C. Astor, and A. Alonso, “Usefulness of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein to predict mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation (from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities [ARIC] study),” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 95–99, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A. Barassi, R. Pezzilli, A. M. Morselli-Labate et al., “Serum amyloid a and C-reactive protein independently predict the recurrences of atrial fibrillation after cardioversion in patients with preserved left ventricular function,” Canadian Journal of Cardiology, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 537–541, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. Mazza, M. G. Bendini, M. Cristofori et al., “C-reactive protein and P-wave in hypertensive patients after conversion of atrial fibrillation,” Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 520–527, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. S. Parashar, D. Kella, K. J. Reid et al., “New-onset atrial fibrillation after acute myocardial infarction and its relation to admission biomarkers (from the TRIUMPH Registry),” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 112, no. 9, pp. 1390–1395, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. F. Sinner, K. A. Stepas, C. B. Moser et al., “B-type natriuretic peptide and C-reactive protein in the prediction of atrial fibrillation risk: the CHARGE-AF Consortium of community-based cohort studies,” Europace, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 1426–1433, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  55. T. A. Dewland, E. Vittinghoff, T. B. Harris et al., “Inflammation as a mediator of the association between race and atrial fibrillation: results from the health ABC study (Health, Aging, and Body Composition),” JACC: Clinical Electrophysiology, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 248–255, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. Aulin, A. Siegbahn, Z. Hijazi et al., “Interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein and risk for death and cardiovascular events in patients with atrial fibrillation,” American Heart Journal, vol. 170, no. 6, pp. 1151–1160, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. M. Negreva, S. Georgiev, and K. Prodanova, “Significant Increase in C-Reactive Protein and Serum Amyloid A in the Early Hours of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation,” 2016, http://www.cardiologyres.org/index.php/Cardiologyres/article/view/455/487.
  58. Z. Hijazi, J. Aulin, U. Andersson et al., “Biomarkers of inflammation and risk of cardiovascular events in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation,” Heart, vol. 102, no. 7, pp. 508–517, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. N. Chavarria, C. Wong, H. Hussain, H. U. L. Joiya, S. Goldbarg, and A. Buda, “Persistent elevation of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio associated with new onset atrial fibrillation following percutaneous coronary intervention for acute st segment,” Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 441–447, 2015. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. S. Sahin, S. Sarikaya, A. Alcelik et al., “Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio is a useful predictor of atrial fibrillation in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Acta Medica Mediterranea, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 847–851, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. Yalcin, M. Aparci, O. Uz et al., “Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio may predict left atrial thrombus in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation,” Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 166–171, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. W. Saliba, O. Barnett-Griness, M. Elias, and G. Rennert, “Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and risk of a first episode of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation: a cohort study,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 1971–1979, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. Y. Fukuda, Y. Nakano, S. Tomomori et al., “Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio predicts reduced left atrial appendage wall velocity in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation,” Journal of Cardiac Failure, vol. 21, no. 10, p. S178, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  64. Y. Karavelioğlu, H. Karapınar, M. Yüksel et al., “Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio is predictor of atrial fibrillation recurrence after cardioversion with amiodarone,” Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 5–9, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. U. Canpolat, K. Aytemir, H. Yorgun et al., “Role of preablation neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio on outcomes of cryoballoon-based atrial fibrillation ablation,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 112, no. 4, pp. 513–519, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. S. D. Brooks, C. Spears, C. Cummings et al., “Admission neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio predicts 90 day outcome after endovascular stroke therapy,” Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 578–583, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. S. Gökhan, A. Özhasenekler, H. Mansur Durgun, E. Akil, M. Üstündag, and M. Orak, “Neutrophil lymphocyte ratios in stroke subtypes and transient ischemic attack,” European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 653–657, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. S. I. Im, S. Y. Shin, J. O. Na et al., “Usefulness of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in predicting early recurrence after radiofrequency catheter ablation in patients with atrial fibrillation,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 168, no. 4, pp. 4398–4400, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  69. X. Y. Guo, S. Zhang, X. L. Yan et al., “Postablation neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio correlates with arrhythmia recurrence after catheter ablation of lone atrial fibrillation,” Chinese Medical Journal, vol. 127, no. 6, pp. 1033–1038, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. C. Trivedi, L. Di Biase, S. Mohanty, and P. Mohanty, “Baseline neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio predicts recurrences after radiofrequency catheter ablation: results from prospective study on paroxysmal atrial fibrillation,” Circulation, vol. 128, Article ID A18588, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  71. H. Acet, F. Ertaş, M. A. Akil et al., “New inflammatory predictors for non-valvular atrial fibrillation: echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio,” International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 81–89, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. S. Wagdy, M. Sobhy, and M. Louitfi, “Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio as a predictor of in-hospital major adverse cardiac events, new-onset atrial fibrillation, and no-reflow phenomenon in patients with st elevation myocardial infarction,” Clinical Medicine Insights: Cardiology, vol. 10, pp. 19–22, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. L. Zhou, I. I. Ivanov, R. Spolski et al., “IL-6 programs TH-17 cell differentiation by promoting sequential engagement of the IL-21 and IL-23 pathways,” Nature Immunology, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 967–974, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. J. McGeachy, K. S. Bak-Jensen, Y. Chen et al., “TGF-β and IL-6 drive the production of IL-17 and IL-10 by T cells and restrain TH-17 cell-mediated pathology,” Nature Immunology, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1390–1397, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. P. R. Taylor, S. Roy, S. M. Leal et al., “Activation of neutrophils by autocrine IL-17A–IL-17RC interactions during fungal infection is regulated by IL-6, IL-23, RORγt and dectin-2,” Nature Immunology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 143–151, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  76. A. Kimura and T. Kishimoto, “IL-6: regulator of Treg/Th17 balance,” European Journal of Immunology, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1830–1835, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. M. S. Dzeshka, G. Y. H. Lip, V. Snezhitskiy, and E. Shantsila, “Cardiac fibrosis in patients with atrial fibrillation: mechanisms and clinical implications,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 66, no. 8, pp. 943–959, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. B. Burstein and S. Nattel, “Atrial fibrosis: mechanisms and clinical relevance in atrial fibrillation,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 802–809, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. X.-X. Fu, N. Zhao, Q. Dong et al., “Interleukin-17A contributes to the development of post-operative atrial fibrillation by regulating inflammation and fibrosis in rats with sterile pericarditis,” International Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 83–92, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. W. Feng, W. Li, W. Liu, F. Wang, Y. Li, and W. Yan, “IL-17 induces myocardial fibrosis and enhances RANKL/OPG and MMP/TIMP signaling in isoproterenol-induced heart failure,” Experimental and Molecular Pathology, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 212–218, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. O. Ahlehoff, G. H. Gislason, C. H. Jørgensen et al., “Psoriasis and risk of atrial fibrillation and ischaemic stroke: a Danish Nationwide Cohort Study,” European Heart Journal, vol. 33, no. 16, pp. 2054–2064, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. O. Ahlehoff, G. Gislason, M. Lamberts et al., “Risk of thromboembolism and fatal stroke in patients with psoriasis and nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: a Danish nationwide cohort study,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 277, no. 4, pp. 447–455, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. D. A. Giles, M. E. Moreno-Fernandez, T. E. Stankiewicz et al., “Regulation of inflammation by IL-17A and IL-17F modulates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease pathogenesis,” PLoS ONE, vol. 11, no. 2, Article ID e0149783, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  84. T. Fabre, H. Kared, S. L. Friedman, and N. H. Shoukry, “IL-17A enhances the expression of profibrotic genes through upregulation of the TGF-β receptor on hepatic stellate cells in a JNK-dependent manner,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 193, no. 8, pp. 3925–3933, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. F. Gramley, J. Lorenzen, E. Koellensperger, K. Kettering, C. Weiss, and T. Munzel, “Atrial fibrosis and atrial fibrillation: the role of the TGF-β1 signaling pathway,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 143, no. 3, pp. 405–413, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. U. Canpolat, A. Oto, T. Hazirolan et al., “A prospective de-mri study evaluating the role of tgf-β1 in left atrial fibrosis and implications for outcomes of cryoballoon-based catheter ablation: new insights into primary fibrotic atriocardiomyopathy,” Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 251–259, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. J. Li, Y. Yang, C. Y. Ng et al., “Association of plasma transforming growth factor-β1 levels and the risk of atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis,” PLoS ONE, vol. 11, no. 5, Article ID e0155275, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  88. J. Chen, M.-Y. Liao, X.-L. Gao et al., “IL-17A induces pro-inflammatory cytokines production in macrophages via MAPKinases, NF-κB and AP-1,” Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 1265–1274, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. M. Shibata, Y. Shintaku, K. Matsuzaki, and S. Uematsu, “The effect of IL-17 on the production of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinase-1 by human periodontal ligament fibroblasts,” Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 60–68, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. P. Dhillion, K. Wallace, F. Herse et al., “IL-17-mediated oxidative stress is an important stimulator of AT1-AA and hypertension during pregnancy,” American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, vol. 303, no. 4, pp. R353–R358, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. A. Hot, V. Lenief, and P. Miossec, “Combination of IL-17 and TNFα induces a pro-inflammatory, pro-coagulant and pro-thrombotic phenotype in human endothelial cells,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 768–776, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. Y.-H. Liao, N. Xia, S.-F. Zhou et al., “Interleukin-17A contributes to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury by regulating cardiomyocyte apoptosis and neutrophil infiltration,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 420–429, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus