Table of Contents
Journal of Biomarkers
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 7406959, 7 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7406959
Research Article

Cystatin-C as a Marker for Renal Impairment in Preeclampsia

1Department of Biochemistry, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal
2Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Xavier University, Oranjestad, Aruba
3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal
4Department of Internal Medicine, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal

Correspondence should be addressed to Apeksha Niraula

Received 22 March 2017; Revised 4 June 2017; Accepted 7 June 2017; Published 11 July 2017

Academic Editor: Kasper Karmark Iversen

Copyright © 2017 Apeksha Niraula et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Dutta and H. C. Konar, “Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy,” in DC Dutta’s Textbook of Obstetrics, pp. 219–240, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. K. S. Khan, D. Wojdyla, L. Say, A. M. Gülmezoglu, and P. F. van Look, “WHO analysis of causes of maternal death: a systematic review,” The Lancet, vol. 367, no. 9516, pp. 1066–1074, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. L. C. Chesley, “Diagnosis of preeclampsia,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 65, pp. 423–425, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  4. C. W. G. Redman, G. P. Sacks, and I. L. Sargent, “Preeclampsia: an excessive maternal inflammatory response to pregnancy,” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 180, no. 2, pp. 499–506, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K. H. Coppage and B. M. Sibai, “Preeclampsia and Eclampsia,” in Gynecology and Obstetrics, p. 291, Lippincott William & Wilkins, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  6. R. Friedman, M. J. De Azevedo, and J. L. Gross, “Is endogenous creatinine clearance still a reliable index of glomerular filtration rate in diabetic patients?” Braz J Med Biol Res, vol. 21, 941, no. 5, p. 944, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  7. M. A. Brown and M. L. Buddle, “What's in a name? Problems with the classification of hypertension in pregnancy,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1049–1054, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. E. Eiland, C. Nzerue, and M. Faulkner, “Preeclampsia 2012,” Journal of Pregnancy, vol. 2012, Article ID 586578, 7 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. K. Sumithra, C. Vibha, and H. L. Vishwanath, “Study of Serum cystatin C in Preeclampsia,” Int J Curr Res, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 2994–2996, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  10. S. A. Bainbridge and J. M. Roberts, “Uric acid as a pathogenic factor in Preeclampsia,” Placenta, vol. 29, pp. 67–72, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. E. D. M. Gallery, S. N. Hunyor, and A. Z. Györy, “Plasma volume contraction: A significant factor in both pregnancy-associated hypertension (preeclampsia) and chronic hypertension in pregnancy,” QJM, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 593–602, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. J. Lamb and C. P. Price, “Kidney Function Tests,” in Teitz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, pp. 669–707, Elsevier Publishers, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 5th edition, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  13. H.-X. Guo, C.-H. Wang, Z.-Q. Li et al., “The application of serum cystatin C in estimating the renal function in women with preeclampsia,” Reproductive Sciences, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 712–717, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. Y. Fujita, I. Mori, and S. Kitano, “Color Reaction Between Pyrogallol Red - Molybdenum (VI) Complex and Protein,” Japan Soc Anal Chem, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. E379–E386, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. N. Franceschini, C. Qiu, D. A. Barrow, and M. A. Williams, “Cystatin C and preeclampsia: a case control study,” Renal Failure, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 89–95, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. A. Lafayette, M. Druzin, R. Sibley et al., “Nature of glomerular dysfunction in pre-eclampsia,” Kidney International, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 1240–1249, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. J. VD Garovic, S. T. Wagner Turner et al., “Urinary podocyte excretion as a marker for preeclampsia,” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 196, no. 4, pp. 1–7, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  18. H. Strevens, D. Wide-Swensson, and A. Grubb, “Serum cystatin C is a better marker for preeclampsia than serum creatinine or serum urate,” Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 575–580, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. Kristensen, D. Wide-Swensson, C. Schmidt et al., “Cystatin C, β-2-microglobulin and β-trace protein in pre-eclampsia,” Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, vol. 86, no. 8, pp. 921–926, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. G. A. Dekker and B. M. Sibai, “Etiology and pathogenesis of preeclampsia: Current concepts,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 179, no. 5, pp. 1359–1375, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Conde-Agudelo and J. M. Belizán, “Risk factors for pre-eclampsia in a large cohort of Latin American and Caribbean women,” British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 75–83, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. L. Tranquilli, “Prediction, medical illness and the risk of pre-eclampsia,” Pregnancy Hypertension, vol. 4, no. 3, p. 245, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. F. F. Kaze, F. A. Njukeng, A.-P. Kengne et al., “Post-partum trend in blood pressure levels, renal function and proteinuria in women with severe preeclampsia and eclampsia in Sub-Saharan Africa: a 6-months cohort study,” BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, vol. 14, no. 1, article 134, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. L. M. Amaral, M. W. Cunningham, D. C. Cornelius, and B. LaMarca, “Preeclampsia: long-term consequences for vascular health,” Vascular Health and Risk Management, vol. 11, pp. 403–415, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. O. Grubb, “Cystatin C-Properties and use as diagnostic marker,” Advances in Clinical Chemistry, vol. 35, pp. 63–99, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  26. Y. Padma, V. B. Aparna, B. Kalpana et al., “Renal markers in normal and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in Indian women: a pilot study,” International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 514–520, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  27. K. M. Isasari, W. T. Pangemanan, I. Zulqarnain, and K. Rahadiyanto, “Maternal Cystatin C serum is higher in women with severe Preeclampsia,” Indones J Obs Gynecol, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 22–27, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  28. S. Back, E. Krutzen, and P. Nilsson-Ehle, “Contrast media as markers for glomerular filtration: a pharmacokinetic comparison of four agents,” Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 247–253, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. L. Cataldi, M. Mussap, L. Bertelli, N. Ruzzante, V. Fanos, and M. Plebani, “Cystatin C in healthy women at term pregnancy and in their infant newborns: Relationship between maternal and neonatal serum levels and reference values,” American Journal of Perinatology, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 287–295, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. E. L. Knight, J. C. Verhave, D. Spiegelman et al., “Factors influencing serum cystatin C levels other than renal function and the impact on renal function measurement,” Kidney International, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 1416–1421, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R. Kumaresan and P. Giri, “A comparison of serum cystatin C and creatinine with glomerular filtration rate in indian patients with chronic kidney disease,” Oman Medical Journal, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 421–425, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. N. Mikic, V. Cabarkapa, A. Nikolic et al., “Cystatin C in pre-eclampsia,” Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 961–965, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. W. Redman, L. J. Beilin, and J. Bonnar, “Renal function in preeclampsia,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 29, supplement 10, pp. 91–94, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. C. W. G. Redman, L. J. Beilin, J. Bonnar, and R. H. Wilkinson, “Plasma-urate measurements in predicting fetal death in hypertensive pregnancy,” The Lancet, vol. 1, no. 7974, pp. 1370–1373, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. E. Schuster and B. Weppelmann, “Plasma urate measurements and fetal outcome in preeclampsia,” Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 162–167, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. N. Sagen, K. Haram, and S. T. Nilsen, “Serum Urate as a Predictor of Fetal Outcome in Severe Pre‐Eclampsia,” Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 71–75, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. K. P. Conrad and M. D. Lindheimer, “Renal and cardiovascular alterations,” in Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy Stamford (CT), pp. 263–326, Appleton and Lange, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  38. O. Shemesh, H. Golbetz, J. P. Kriss, and B. D. Myers, “Limitations of creatinine as a filtration marker in glomerulopathic patients,” Kidney International, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 830–838, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. S. Levey, R. D. Perrone, and N. E. Madias, “Serum creatinine and renal function,” Annual Review of Medicine, vol. 39, pp. 465–490, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. R. D. Perrone, N. E. Madias, and A. S. Levey, “Serum creatinine as an index of renal function: new insights into old concepts,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 1933–1953, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. H. Strevens, D. Wide-Swensson, and I. Ingemarsson, “Blood pressure during pregnancy in a Swedish population; impact of parity,” Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, vol. 80, no. 9, pp. 824–829, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. K. Haram, E. Svendsen, and U. Abildgaard, “The HELLP syndrome: clinical issues and management. A Review,” BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, vol. 9, 8 pages, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. H. Strevens, D. Wide-Swensson, O. Torffvit, and A. Grubb, “Serum cystatin C for assessment of glomerular filtration rate in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Indications of altered filtration process in pregnancy,” Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 141–147, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus