Table of Contents
Journal of Biophysics
Volume 2016, Article ID 7984157, 9 pages
Research Article

Detection of Gait Modes Using an Artificial Neural Network during Walking with a Powered Ankle-Foot Orthosis

Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA

Received 30 June 2016; Revised 18 October 2016; Accepted 10 November 2016

Academic Editor: Prescott B. Chase

Copyright © 2016 Mazharul Islam and Elizabeth T. Hsiao-Wecksler. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper presents an algorithm, for use with a Portable Powered Ankle-Foot Orthosis (i.e., PPAFO) that can automatically detect changes in gait modes (level ground, ascent and descent of stairs or ramps), thus allowing for appropriate ankle actuation control during swing phase. An artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm used input signals from an inertial measurement unit and foot switches, that is, vertical velocity and segment angle of the foot. Output from the ANN was filtered and adjusted to generate a final data set used to classify different gait modes. Five healthy male subjects walked with the PPAFO on the right leg for two test scenarios (walking over level ground and up and down stairs or a ramp; three trials per scenario). Success rate was quantified by the number of correctly classified steps with respect to the total number of steps. The results indicated that the proposed algorithm’s success rate was high (99.3%, 100%, and 98.3% for level, ascent, and descent modes in the stairs scenario, respectively; 98.9%, 97.8%, and 100% in the ramp scenario). The proposed algorithm continuously detected each step’s gait mode with faster timing and higher accuracy compared to a previous algorithm that used a decision tree based on maximizing the reliability of the mode recognition.