Table of Contents
Journal of Catalysts
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 510509, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/510509
Review Article

Heterogeneous Tin Catalysts Applied to the Esterification and Transesterification Reactions

Chemistry Department, Federal University of Viçosa, 36570-000 Viçosa, MG, Brazil

Received 8 May 2013; Revised 26 September 2013; Accepted 26 September 2013

Academic Editor: Valeria La Parola

Copyright © 2013 Márcio José da Silva and Abiney Lemos Cardoso. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The interest in the development of efficient and environmentally benign catalysts for esters synthesis has increased exponentially, mainly due to the demand for biodiesel. In general, fatty esters are used as bioadditive, cosmetic ingredients, polymers, and, more recently, biofuel. Nevertheless, most of the production processes use nonrecyclable and homogenous alkaline catalysts, which results in the reactors corrosion, large generation of effluents, and residues on the steps of separation and catalyst neutralization. Heterogeneous acid catalysts can answer these demands and are an environmentally benign alternative extensively explored. Remarkably, solid acid catalysts based on tin have been shown highly attractive for the biodiesel production, mainly via FFA esterification reactions. This review describes important features related to be the synthesis, stability to, and activity of heterogeneous tin catalysts in biodiesel production reactions.