Table of Contents
Journal of Catalysts
Volume 2014, Article ID 402860, 35 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/402860
Review Article

Organocatalysis: Key Trends in Green Synthetic Chemistry, Challenges, Scope towards Heterogenization, and Importance from Research and Industrial Point of View

1Department of Chemistry, Shri Jagdishprasad Jhabarmal Tibrewala University, Vidyanagari, Jhunjhunu-Churu Road, Chudela, Jhunjhunu District, Rajasthan 333001, India
2Razak Institution of Skills, Education and Research (RISER), Shrinagar, Near Rafaiya Masjid and Hanuman Mandir, Nanded, Maharashtra State 431 605, India
3Post Graduate and Research Centre, Department of Chemistry, Poona College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Camp Area, Pune 411 001, Maharashtra State, India

Received 26 September 2013; Revised 17 December 2013; Accepted 23 December 2013; Published 26 March 2014

Academic Editor: Sankaranarayana Pillai Shylesh

Copyright © 2014 Isak Rajjak Shaikh. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. “Our Common Future: Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, United Nations (UN) Commission on Environment and Development (Brundtland Commission), 1987,” Published as Annex to General Assembly document A/42/427, Development and International Co-operation: Environment, August 1987.
  2. M. Lancaster, Green Chemistry: An Introductory Text, The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, 2002.
  3. P. T. Anastas and J. C. Warner, Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1998.
  4. J. H. Clark, “Catalysis for green chemistry,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 103–111, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. J. H. Clark and C. N. Rhodes, Clean Synthesis Using Porous Inorganic Solid Catalysts, RSC Clean Technology Monographs, Cambridge, UK, 2000.
  6. W. Ostwald, “Die Überwindung des wissenschaftlichen Materialismus,” in Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte, pp. 155–168, 1895. View at Google Scholar
  7. R. A. Sheldon, “Consider the environmental quotient,” Chemtech, vol. 25, pp. 38–47, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  8. R. A. Sheldon and H. van Bekkum, Eds., Fine Chemicals Through Heterogeneous Catalysis, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2001.
  9. R. A. Sheldon and R. S. Downing, “Heterogeneous catalytic transformations for environmentally friendly production,” Applied Catalysis A, vol. 189, no. 2, pp. 163–183, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. A. Sheldon, “The e factor: fifteen years on,” Green Chemistry, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 1273–1283, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. A. Sheldon, “E factors, green chemistry and catalysis: an odyssey,” Chemical Communications, no. 29, pp. 3352–3365, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. A. Sheldon, “Selective catalytic synthesis of fine chemicals: opportunities and trends,” Journal of Molecular Catalysis A, vol. 107, no. 1–3, pp. 75–83, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. A. Sheldon, “Catalysis and pollution prevention,” Chemistry & Industry, vol. 1, pp. 12–15, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  14. R. A. Sheldon, “Catalysis: the key to waste minimization,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 68, pp. 381–388, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  15. G. Ertl, H. Knozinger, and J. Weitkamp, Eds., Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis, Wiley-Vch, Weinheim, Germany, 1997.
  16. R. A. van Santen, P. W. N. M. van Leeuwen, J. A. Moulijn, and B. A. Averill, Eds., Catalysis: An Intergrated Approach, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2nd edition, 1999.
  17. J. R. Anderson and K. C. Pratt, Introduction To Characterisation and Testing of Catalysts, Academic Press, Sydney, Australia, 1985.
  18. J. M. Walls and R. Smith, Eds., Surface Science Techniques, Pergamon, 1994.
  19. J. W. Niemantsverdriet, Spectroscopy in Catalysis, Wiley-Vch, Weinheim, Germany, 2007.
  20. J. J. Bozell and G. R. Petersen, “Technology development for the production of biobased products from biorefinery carbohydrates—the US Department of Energy's “top 10” revisited,” Green Chemistry, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 539–554, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. A. Gross, M. Ganesh, and W. Lu, “Enzyme-catalysis breathes new life into polyester condensation polymerizations,” Trends in Biotechnology, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 435–443, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. J. Li and T. H. Chan, Organic Reactions in Aqueous Media, Wiley-VCH, New York, NY, USA, 1997.
  23. P. A. Grieco, Organic Synthesis in Water, Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1997.
  24. B. M. Trost, “Atom economy—a challenge for organic synthesis: homogeneous catalysis leads the way,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 259–281, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. B. Cornils and W. A. Herrmann, in Applied Homogeneous Catalysis with Organometallic Compounds, B. Cornils and W. A. Herrmann, Eds., Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2nd edition, 2002.
  26. B. Cornils and W. A. Herrmann, “Concepts in homogeneous catalysis: the industrial view,” Journal of Catalysis, vol. 216, no. 1-2, pp. 23–31, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. Bhaduri and D. Mukesh, Homogeneous Catalysis, John Wiley & Sons, 2002.
  28. G. W. Parshall and S. D. Ittel, Homogeneous Catalysis, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1992, Emphasis on Industrial Applications.
  29. B. Cornils and W. A. Herrmann, Eds., Applied Homogeneous Catalysis by Organometallic Complexes, Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, Germany, 1996.
  30. I. Ojima, Ed., Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis, Verlag VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 1993.
  31. R. Noyori, Asymmetric Catalysis in Organic Synthesis, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1994.
  32. H.-U. Blaser, A. Indolese, and A. Schnyder, “Applied homogeneous catalysis by organometallic complexes,” Current Science, vol. 78, no. 11, pp. 1336–1344, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Beller and H.-U. Blaser, Eds., Organometallics as Catalysts in the Fine Chemical Industry, vol. 42 of Topics in Organometallic Chemistry, Springer, 2012.
  34. B. R. Cuenya, “Synthesis and catalytic properties of metal nanoparticles: size, shape, support, composition, and oxidation state effects,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 518, no. 12, pp. 3127–3150, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. E. Victor Henrich and P. A. Cox, The Surface Science of Metal Oxides, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1994.
  36. H. H. Kung, “Transition metal oxides,” in Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  37. K. J. Klabunde, M. Fazlul Hoq, F. Mousah, and H. Matsuhashi, “Metal Oxides and their physico-chemical properties in Catalysis and Synthesis,” in Preparative Chemistry Using Supported Reagents, Academic Press, London, UK, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  38. H. Schäfer, Chemiker-Zeitung, vol. 101, no. 7/8, p. 325, 1977.
  39. H.-C. Zhou, J. R. Long, and O. M. Yaghi, “Introduction to metal-organic frameworks,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 112, no. 2, pp. 673–674, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. D. Farrusseng, Ed., Metal-Organic Frameworks. Applications From Catalysis to Gas Storage, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2011.
  41. N. Rahmat, A. Z. Abdullah, and A. R. Mohamed, “A review: mesoporous Santa Barbara amorphous-15, types, synthesis and its applications towards biorefinery production,” American Journal of Applied Sciences, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 1579–1586, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S.-H. Wu, C.-Y. Mou, and H.-P. Lin, “Synthesis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles,” Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 42, pp. 3862–3875, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. A. Bernardos and L. Kouřimská, “Applications of mesoporous silica materials in food: a review,” Czech Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 99–107, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  44. M. N. Timofeeva, V. N. Panchenko, Z. Hasan, and S.-H. Jhung, “Catalytic potential of the wonderful chameleons: nickel phosphate molecular sieves,” Applied Catalysis A, vol. 455, pp. 71–85, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. I. R. Shaikh and S.-E. Park, “Microwave synthesis and catalytic applications of novel cobalt incorporated nickel phosphate,” Diffusion and Defect Data Pt.B: Solid State Phenomena, vol. 119, pp. 279–282, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. I. R. Shaikh, Nanoporous nickel phosphate and silica materials for heterogeneous oxidation catalysis [Ph.D. thesis], Inha University, Inchon, Republic of Korea, 2007, Ph.D. thesis incomplete, unpublished and in conflict between S-E Park and Isak R. Shaikh.
  47. Y. Tao, H. Kanoh, L. Abrams, and K. Kaneko, “Mesopore-modified zeolites: preparation, characterization, and applications,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 896–910, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. E. Davis, “Ordered porous materials for emerging applications,” Nature, vol. 417, no. 6891, pp. 813–821, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. K. Tsuji, C. W. Jones, and M. E. Davis, “Organic-functionalized molecular sieves (OFMSs): I. Synthesis and characterization of OFMSs with polar functional groups,” Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 339–349, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. C. W. Jones, K. Tsuji, and M. E. Davis, “Organic-functionalized molecular sieves as shape-selective catalysts,” Nature, vol. 393, no. 6680, pp. 52–54, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. E. Davis, “The quest for extra-large pore, crystalline molecular sieves,” Chemistry—A European Journal, vol. 3, pp. 1745–1750, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. B. Notori, “Microporous crystalline titanium silicates,” Advances in Catalysis, vol. 41, pp. 253–334, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. R. J. Saxon, “Crystalline microporous titanium silicates,” Topics in Catalysis, vol. 9, no. 1-2, pp. 43–57, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  54. J. M. Thomas and R. Raja, “Design of a “green” one-step catalytic production of ε-caprolactam (precursor of nylon-6),” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 39, pp. 13732–13736, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. M. Hartmann and L. Kevan, “Transition-metal ions in aluminophosphate and silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieves: location, interaction with adsorbates and catalytic properties,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 635–663, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. C. S. Cundy and P. A. Cox, “The hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites: history and development from the earliest days to the present time,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 663–701, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. A. Corma, “From microporous to mesoporous molecular sieve materials and their use in catalysis,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 97, no. 6, pp. 2373–2419, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. G. De, M. Gusso, L. Tapfer et al., “Annealing behavior of silver, copper, and silver-copper nanoclusters in a silica matrix synthesized by the sol-gel technique,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 80, no. 12, pp. 6734–6739, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. Y. Wan and D. Zhao, “On the controllable soft-templating approach to mesoporous silicates,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 107, no. 7, pp. 2821–2860, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. A. K. Cheetham, G. Ferey, and T. Loiseau, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 38, p. 3298, 1999.
  61. G. Ferey, “Microporous solids: from organically templated inorganic skeletons to hybrid frameworks . . . ecumenism in chemistry,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 13, pp. 3084–3098, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  62. C. N. R. Rao, S. Natarajan, and R. Vaidhyanathan, “Metal carboxylates with open architectures,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 1466–1496, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. F. Schüth and W. Schmidt, “Microporous and mesoporous materials,” Advanced Materials, vol. 14, pp. 629–638, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  64. F. Schuth, K. Sing, and J. Weitkamp, Eds., Handbook of Porous Solids, vol. I-V, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2002.
  65. Y. Wan and D. Y. Zhao, “On the controllable soft-templating approach to mesoporous silicates,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 107, no. 7, pp. 2821–2860, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. V. Parvulescu, C. Anastasescu, and B. L. Su, “Bimetallic Ru-(Cr, Ni, or Cu) and La-(Co or Mn) incorporated MCM-41 molecular sieves as catalysts for oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons,” Journal of Molecular Catalysis A, vol. 211, pp. 143–148, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  67. S. Vetrivel and A. Pandurangan, “Co and Mn impregnated MCM-41: their applications to vapour phase oxidation of isopropylbenzene,” Journal of Molecular Catalysis A, vol. 227, pp. 269–278, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  68. Y. Wan, D. Zhang, N. Hao, and D. Zhao, “Organic groups functionalised mesoporous silicates,” International Journal of Nanotechnology, vol. 4, p. 66, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  69. V. Ayala, A. Corma, M. Iglesias, and F. Sanchez, “Mesoporous MCM41-heterogenised (salen)Mn and Cu complexes as effective catalysts for oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides: isolation of a stable supported Mn(V)=O complex, responsible of the catalytic activity,” Journal of Molecular Catalysis A, vol. 221, pp. 201–208, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  70. Z. G. Hajos and D. R. Parrish, “Asymmetric synthesis of bicyclic intermediates of natural product chemistry,” The Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 1615–1621, 1974. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. L. Shu and Y. Shi, “An efficient ketone-catalyzed epoxidation using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant,” The Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 65, pp. 8807–8810, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  72. E. J. Corey, F. Xu, and M. C. Noe, “A rational approach to catalytic enantioselective enolate alkylation using a structurally rigidified and defined chiral quaternary ammonium salt under phase transfer conditions,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 119, pp. 12414–12415, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. B. Sellergren, R. N. Karmalkar, and K. J. Shea, “Enantioselective ester hydrolysis catalyzed by imprinted polymers. 2,” Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 65, no. 13, pp. 4009–4027, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. J. von Liebig, “Ueber die Bildung des Oxamids aus Cyan,” Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie, vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 246–247, 1860. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. H. D. Dakin, “The catalytic action of amino-acids, peptones and proteins in effecting certain syntheses,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 7, p. 49, 1909. View at Google Scholar
  76. W. Langenbeck, “Über organische Katalysatoren. III. Die Bildung von Oxamid aus Dicyan bei Gegenwart von Aldehyden,” Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, vol. 469, p. 16, 1929. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  77. W. Langenbeck, Die Organische Katalysatoren und ihre Beziehungen zu den Fermenten, vol. 2, Springer, 1949.
  78. W. Langenbeck, Fortschritte Der Chemischen Forschung, vol. 6, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1966.
  79. M. M. Vavon and P. Peignier, “L'application des alcaloïdes dans la synthèse organique,” Bulletin de la Société Chimique de France, vol. 45, p. 293, 1929. View at Google Scholar
  80. R. Wegler, “Über die mit verschiedener Reaktionsgeschwindigkeit erfolgende Veresterung der optischen Antipoden eines Racemates durch opt. akt. Katalysatoren,” Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, vol. 498, pp. 62–73, 1932. View at Google Scholar
  81. S. Pizzarello and A. L. Weber, “Prebiotic amino acids as asymmetric catalysts,” Science, vol. 303, no. 5661, p. 1151, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. G. Bredig and P. S. Fiske, Biochemische Zeitschrift, vol. 46, p. 7, 1912.
  83. H. Pracejus, “Organische Katalysatoren, LXI. Asymmetrische Synthesen mit Ketenen, I. Alkaloid-katalysierte asymmetrische Synthesen von α-Phenyl-propionsäureestern,” Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, vol. 634, pp. 9–22, 1960. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  84. H. Pracejus, “Asymmetrische Synthesen mit Ketenen, II. Stereospezifische Addition von α-Phenyl-äthylamin an Phenyl-methyl-keten,” Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, vol. 634, pp. 23–29, 1960. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. S.-I. Yamada and G. Otani, “Asymmetric synthesis with amino acid II asymmetric synthesis of optically active 4,4-disubstituted-cyclohexenone,” Tetrahedron Letters, vol. 10, no. 48, pp. 4237–4240, 1969. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. Z. G. Hajos and D. R. Parrish, German Patent DE, 2102623 1971.
  87. Z. G. Hajos and D. R. Parrish, United States Patent US, 3975442, 1971.
  88. U. Eder, G. Sauer, and R. Wiechert, “New type of asymmetric cyclization to optically active steroid CD partial structures,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 10, pp. 496–497, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  89. C. Allemann, R. Gordillo, F. R. Clemente, P. H.-Y. Cheong, and K. N. Houk, “Theory of asymmetric organocatalysis of aldol and related reactions: rationalizations and predictions,” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 568–569, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. H. Wynberg, “Asymmetric catalysis by alkaloids,” Topics in Stereochemistry, vol. 16, pp. 87–129, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  91. H. Wynberg, “Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of chiral 4-substituted 2-oxetanones,” The Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 50, pp. 1977–1979, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  92. H. Wynberg, “Asymmetric synthesis of (S)- and (R)-malic acid from ketene and chloral,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 104, pp. 166–168, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  93. B. List, R. A. Lerner, and C. F. Barbas III, “Proline-catalyzed direct asymmetric aldol reactions,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 122, pp. 2395–2396, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  94. T. Bui and C. F. Barbas III, “A proline-catalyzed asymmetric Robinson annulation reaction,” Tetrahedron Letters, vol. 41, no. 36, pp. 6951–6954, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  95. R. B. Woodward, E. Logusch, K. P. Nambiar et al., “Asymmetric total synthesis of erythromcin. 1. Synthesis of an erythronolide A secoacid derivative via asymmetric induction,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 103, no. 11, pp. 3210–3213, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  96. K. A. Ahrendt, C. J. Borths, and D. W. C. MacMillan, “New strategies for organic catalysis: the first highly enantioselective organocatalytic diels—Alder reaction,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 122, no. 17, pp. 4243–4244, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. B. List, R. A. Lerner, and C. F. Barbas III, “Proline-catalyzed direct asymmetric aldol reactions,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 122, no. 10, pp. 2395–2396, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. N. Vignola and B. List, “Catalytic asymmetric intramolecular α-alkylation of aldehydes,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 126, no. 2, pp. 450–451, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  99. A. B. Northrup and D. W. C. MacMillan, “Two-step synthesis of carbohydrates by selective aldol reactions,” Science, vol. 305, no. 5691, pp. 1752–1755, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. A. B. Northrup, I. K. Mangion, F. Hettche, and D. W. C. MacMillan, “Enantioselective organocatalytic direct aldol reactions of α-oxyaldehydes: step one in a two-step synthesis of carbohydrates,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 43, no. 16, pp. 2152–2154, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. L. C. Dias, L. J. Steil, and V. D. A. Vasconcelos, “A short and efficient synthesis of (+)-prelactone B,” Tetrahedron Asymmetry, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 147–150, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. P. M. Pihko and A. Erkkilä, “Enantioselective synthesis of prelactone B using a proline-catalyzed crossed-aldol reaction,” Tetrahedron Letters, vol. 44, no. 41, pp. 7607–7609, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. A. B. Northrup and D. W. C. MacMillan, “The first direct and enantioselective cross-aldol reaction of aldehydes,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 124, no. 24, pp. 6798–6799, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. K. Sakthivel, W. Notz, T. Bui, and C. F. Barbas III, “Amino acid catalyzed direct asymmetric aldol reactions: a bioorganic approach to catalytic asymmetric carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 123, no. 22, pp. 5260–5267, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. B. List, P. Pojarliev, and C. Castello, “Proline-catalyzed asymmetric aldol reactions between ketones and α-unsubstituted aldehydes,” Organic Letters, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 573–575, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. B. List, R. A. Lerner, and C. F. Barbas III, “Proline-catalyzed direct asymmetric aldol reactions,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 122, no. 10, pp. 2395–2396, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. B. List, R. A. Lerner, and C. F. Barbas III, “Enantioselective aldol cyclodehydrations catalyzed by antibody 38C2,” Organic Letters, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 59–61, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. J. M. Betancort and C. F. Barbas III, “Direct asymmetric organocatalytic michael reactions of α,α-disubstituted aldehydes with β-nitrostyrenes for the synthesis of quaternary carbon-containing products,” Organic Letters, vol. 6, pp. 2527–2530, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  109. A. Alexakis and O. Andrey, “Diamine-catalyzed asymmetric Michael additions of aldehydes and ketones to nitrostyrene,” Organic Letters, vol. 4, no. 21, pp. 3611–3614, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. B. List, P. Pojarliev, and H. J. Martin, “Efficient proline-catalyzed Michael additions of unmodified ketones to nitro olefins,” Organic Letters, vol. 3, no. 16, pp. 2423–2425, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. D. Enders and A. Seki, “Proline-catalyzed enantioselective Michael additions of ketones to nitrostyrene,” Synlett, no. 1, pp. 26–28, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. J. M. Betancort and C. F. Barbas III, “Catalytic direct asymmetric Michael reactions: taming naked aldehyde donors,” Organic Letters, vol. 3, no. 23, pp. 3737–3740, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. J. M. Betancort, K. Sakthivel, R. Thayumanavan, and C. F. Barbas III, “Catalytic enantioselective direct Michael additions of ketones to alkylidene malonates,” Tetrahedron Letters, vol. 42, no. 27, pp. 4441–4444, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. S. Hanessian and V. Pham, “Catalytic asymmetric conjugate addition of nitroalkanes to cycloalkenones,” Organic Letters, vol. 2, no. 19, pp. 2975–2978, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. M. Yamaguchi, Y. Igarashi, R. S. Reddy, T. Shiraishi, and M. Hirama, “Asymmetric Michael addition of nitroalkanes to prochiral acceptors catalyzed by proline rubidium salts,” Tetrahedron, vol. 53, no. 32, pp. 11223–11236, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. N. S. Chowdari, J. T. Suri, and C. F. Barbas III, “Asymmetric synthesis of quaternary α-and β-amino acids and β-lactams via proline-catalyzed Mannich reactions with branched aldehyde donors,” Organic Letters, vol. 6, no. 15, pp. 2507–2510, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. N. S. Chowdari, D. B. Ramachary, and C. F. Barbas III, “Organocatalysis in ionic liquids: highly efficient L-proline-catalyzed direct asymmetric Mannich reactions involving ketone and aldehyde nucleophiles,” Synlett, no. 12, pp. 1906–1909, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. B. List, P. Pojarliev, W. T. Biller, and H. J. Martin, “The proline-catalyzed direct asymmetric three-component Mannich reaction: scope, optimization, and application to the highly enantioselective synthesis of 1,2-amino alcohols,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 124, no. 5, pp. 827–833, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. A. Córdova, W. Notz, G. Zhong, J. M. Betancort, and C. F. Barbas III, “A highly enantioselective amino acid-catalyzed route to functionalized α-amino acids,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 124, no. 9, pp. 1842–1843, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. A. Córdova, S.-I. Watanabe, F. Tanaka, W. Notz, and C. F. Barbas III, “A highly enantioselective route to either enantiomer of both α- and β-amino acid derivatives,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 124, no. 9, pp. 1866–1867, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. A. Corodova and C. F. Barbas III, “anti-Selective SMP-catalyzed direct asymmetric Mannich-type reactions: synthesis of functionalized amino acid derivatives,” Tetrahedron Letters, vol. 43, pp. 7749–7752, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  122. B. List, “The direct catalytic asymmetric three-component Mannich reaction,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 122, no. 38, pp. 9336–9337, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. F. Shi, W. Tan, R.-Y. Zhu, G.-J. Xing, and S.-J. Tu, “catalytic asymmetric five-component tandem reaction: diastereo- and enantioselective synthesis of densely functionalized tetrahydropyridines with biological importance,” Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis, vol. 355, no. 8, pp. 1605–1622, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  124. J. W. Yang, M. T. Hechavarria Fonseca, and B. List, “Catalytic asymmetric reductive Michael cyclization,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 127, no. 43, pp. 15036–15037, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. B. List, “Direct catalytic asymmetric α-amination of aldehydes,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 124, pp. 5656–5657, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  126. G. Zhong, “A facile and rapid route to highly enantiopure 1,2-diols by novel catalytic asymmetric α-aminoxylation of aldehydes,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 42, no. 35, pp. 4247–4250, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. S. P. Brown, M. P. Brochu, C. J. Sinz, and D. W. C. MacMillan, “The direct and enantioselective organocatalytic α-oxidation of aldehydes,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 125, no. 36, pp. 10808–10809, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. A. Bøgevig, H. Sunden, and A. Córdova, “Direct catalytic enantioselective alpha-aminoxylation of ketones: a stereoselective synthesis of alpha-hydroxy and alpha,alpha'-dihydroxy ketones,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 43, pp. 1109–1112, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  129. J. Seayad and B. List, “Asymmetric organocatalysis,” Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, vol. 3, pp. 719–724, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  130. R. R. Shaikh, A. Mazzanti, M. Petrini, G. Bartoli, and P. Melchiorre, “Proline-catalyzed asymmetric formal α-alkylation of aldehydes via vinylogous iminium ion intermediates generated from arylsulfonyl indoles,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 47, no. 45, pp. 8707–8710, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. R. K. Kunz and D. W. C. MacMillan, “Enantioselective organocatalytic cyclopropanations. The identification of a new class of iminium catalyst based upon directed electrostatic activation,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 127, no. 10, pp. 3240–3241, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. J. Franzén, M. Marigo, D. Fielenbach, T. C. Wabnitz, A. Kjærsgaard, and K. A. Jørgensen, “A general organocatalyst for direct α-functionalization of aldehydes: stereoselective C−C, C−N, C−F, C−Br, and C−S bond-forming reactions. Scope and mechanistic insights,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 127, p. 18296, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  133. A. Bøgevig, K. Juhl, N. Kumaragurubaran, W. Zhuang, and K. A. Jørgensen, “Direct organo-catalytic asymmetric α-amination of aldehydes—a simple approach to optically active α-amino aldehydes, α-amino alcohols, and α-amino acids,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 41, pp. 1790–1793, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  134. M. Marigo and K. A. Jørgensen, “α-Heteroatom functionalization,” in Enantioselective Organocatalysis, P. I. Dalko, Ed., Chapter 2.2, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  135. M. Marigo, T. Schulte, J. Franzén, and K. A. Jørgensen, “Asymmetric multicomponent domino reactions and highly enantioselective conjugated addition of thiols to α,β-unsaturated aldehydes,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 127, pp. 15710–15711, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  136. M. Marigo, J. Franzén, T. B. Poulsen, W. Zhuang, and K. A. Jørgensen, “Asymmetric organocatalytic epoxidation of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes with hydrogen peroxide,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 127, pp. 6964–6965, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  137. A. Carlone, G. Bartoli, M. Bosco, L. Sambri, and P. Melchiorre, “Organocatalytic asymmetric hydrophosphination of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 46, no. 24, pp. 4504–4506, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. I. Ibrahem, R. Rios, J. Vesely et al., “Enantioselective organocatalytic hydrophosphination of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 46, no. 24, pp. 4507–4510, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. X. Yu and W. Wang, “Organocatalysis: asymmetric cascade reactions catalysed by chiral secondary amines,” Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, vol. 6, pp. 2037–2046, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  140. D. Enders, M. R. M. Hüttl, C. Grondal, and G. Raabe, “Control of four stereocentres in a triple cascade organocatalytic reaction,” Nature, vol. 441, pp. 861–863, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  141. A. E. Allen and D. W. C. MacMillan, “Enantioselective α-arylation of aldehydes via the productive merger of iodonium salts and organocatalysis,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 133, no. 12, pp. 4260–4263, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. A. E. Allen and D. W. C. MacMillan, “The productive merger of iodonium salts and organocatalysis: a non-photolytic approach to the enantioselective α-trifluoromethylation of aldehydes,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 132, no. 14, pp. 4986–4987, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. H.-W. Shih, M. N. Vander Wal, R. L. Grange, and D. W. C. MacMillan, “Enantioselective α-benzylation of aldehydes via photoredox organocatalysis,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 132, no. 39, pp. 13600–13603, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. D. W. C. MacMillan, “The advent and development of organocatalysis,” Nature, vol. 455, no. 7211, pp. 304–308, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. T. D. Beeson, A. Mastracchio, J.-B. Hong, K. Ashton, and D. W. C. MacMillan, “Enantioselective organocatalysis using SOMO activation,” Science, vol. 316, no. 5824, pp. 582–585, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. S. G. Ouellet, A. Walji, and D. W. C. MacMillan, “Enantioselective organocatalytic transfer hydrogenation reactions using Hantzsch esters,” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 40, pp. 1327–1339, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  147. Y. Huang, A. M. Walji, C. H. Larsen, and D. W. C. MacMillan, “Enantioselective organo-cascade catalysis,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 127, no. 43, pp. 15051–15053, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. S. P. Brown, M. P. Brochu, C. J. Sinz, and D. W. C. MacMillan, “The direct and enantioselective organocatalytic α-oxidation of aldehydes,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 125, no. 36, pp. 10808–10809, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. N. A. Para and D. W. C. MacMillan, “New strategies in organic catalysis: the first enantioselective organocatalytic Friedel-Crafts alkylation,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 123, no. 18, pp. 4370–4371, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. W. S. Jen, J. J. M. Wiener, and D. W. C. MacMillan, “New strategies for organic catalysis: the first enantioselective organocatalytic 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 122, no. 40, pp. 9874–9875, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. F. Calderón, R. Fernández, F. Sánchez, and A. Fernández-Mayoralas, “Asymmetric aldol reaction using immobilized proline on mesoporous support,” Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis, vol. 347, no. 10, pp. 1395–1403, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  152. Z. An, W. Zhang, H. Shi, and J. He, “An effective heterogeneous l-proline catalyst for the asymmetric aldol reaction using anionic clays as intercalated support,” Journal of Catalysis, vol. 241, no. 2, pp. 319–327, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. M. Gruttadauria, F. Giacalone, and R. Noto, “Supported proline and proline-derivatives as recyclable organocatalysts,” Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1666–1688, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. O. Bortolini, A. Cavazzini, P. P. Giovannini et al., “A combined kinetic and thermodynamic approach for the interpretation of continuous-flow heterogeneous catalytic processes,” Chemistry—A European Journal, vol. 19, no. 24, pp. 7802–7808, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  155. A. Berkessel and H. Groeger, Eds., Asymmetric Organocatalysis: From Biomimetic Concepts To Applications in Asymmetric SynthesisSpecial Issue: Asymmetric Organocatalysis, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2005.
  156. A. Berkessel and H. Groeger, Metal-Free Organic Catalysts in Asymmetric Synthesis, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2004.
  157. K. N. Houk and B. List, “Special issue: asymmetric organocatalysis,” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 37, no. 8, p. 487, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  158. F. Xu, M. Zacuto, N. Yoshikawa et al., “Asymmetric synthesis of telcagepant, a CGRP receptor antagonist for the treatment of migraine,” Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 75, no. 22, pp. 7829–7841, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. H. U. Blaser and E. Schmidt, “Introduction,” in Asymmetric Catalysis on Industrial Scale, H. U. Blaser and E. Schmidt, Eds., pp. 1–19, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  160. H. U. Blaser, B. Pugin, and F. Spindler, “Progress in enantioselective catalysis assessed from an industrial point of view,” Journal of Molecular Catalysis A, vol. 231, pp. 1–20, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  161. H. U. Blaser, “Enantioselective catalysis in fine chemicals production,” Chemical Communications, pp. 293–296, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  162. S. S. V. Ramasastry, H. Zhang, F. Tanaka, and C. F. Barbas III, “Direct catalytic asymmetric synthesis of anti-1,2-amino alcohols and syn-1,2-diols through organocatalytic anti-Mannich and syn-aldol reactions,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 129, pp. 288–289, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  163. Y. Zhao, J. Rodrigo, A. H. Hoveyda, and M. L. Snapper, “Enantioselective silyl protection of alcohols catalysed by an amino-acid-based small molecule,” Nature, vol. 443, no. 7107, pp. 67–70, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. S. Saha and J. N. Moorthy, “Enantioselective organocatalytic Biginelli reaction: dependence of the catalyst on sterics, hydrogen bonding, and reinforced chirality,” The Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 76, pp. 396–402, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  165. S. Gore, S. Baskaran, and B. Koenig, “Efficient synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2-ones in low melting tartaric acid-urea mixtures,” Green Chemistry, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1009–1013, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. N. Li, X. H. Chen, J. Song, S. W. Luo, W. Fan, and L. Z. Gong, “Highly enantioselective organocatalytic Biginelli and Biginelli-like condensations: reversal of the stereochemistry by tuning the 3,3′-disubstituents of phosphoric acids,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 132, p. 10953, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  167. N. Lu, D. Chen, G. Zhang, and Q. Liu, “Theoretical investigation on enantioselective Biginelli reaction catalyzed by natural tartaric acid,” International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, vol. 111, pp. 2031–2038, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  168. M. Lei, “An efficient and environmentally friendly procedure for synthesis of pyrimidinone derivatives by use of a Biginelli-type reaction,” Monatshefte für Chemie, vol. 141, pp. 1005–1008, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  169. Y. Y. Wu, Z. Chai, X. Y. Liu, G. Zhao, and S. W. Wang, “Synthesis of substituted 5-(Pyrrolidin-2-yl)tetrazoles and their application in the asymmetric Biginelli reaction,” European Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 6, pp. 904–911, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  170. M. M. Savant, A. M. Pansuriya, C. V. Bhuva, N. P. Kapuriya, and Y. T. Naliapara, “Etidronic acid: a new and efficient catalyst for the synthesis of novel 5-nitro-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones,” Catalysis Letters, vol. 132, no. 1-2, pp. 281–284, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  171. J. N. Sangshetti, N. D. Kokare, and D. B. Shinde, “Oxalic acid as a versatile catalyst for one pot facile synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2-(1H)-ones and their thione analogues,” Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 1191–1194, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  172. E. Ramu, V. Kotra, N. Bansal, R. Varala, and S. R. Adapa, “Green approach for the efficient synthesis of Biginelli compounds promoted by citric acid under solvent-free conditions,” Rasayan Journal of Chemistry, vol. 1, pp. 188–194, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  173. D. B. Ramachary, N. S. Chowdari, and C. F. Barbas III, “Amine-catalyzed direct self Diels-Alder reactions of α,β-unsaturated ketones in water: synthesis of pro-chiral cyclohexanones,” Tetrahedron Letters, vol. 43, no. 38, pp. 6743–6746, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  174. D. B. Ramachary, K. Anebouselvy, N. S. Chowdari, and C. F. Barbas III, “Direct organocatalytic asymmetric heterodomino reactions: the Knoevenagel/Diels-Alder/epimerization sequence for the highly diastereoselective synthesis of symmetrical and nonsymmetrical synthons of benzoannelated centropolyquinanes,” Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 69, no. 18, pp. 5838–5849, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  175. R. Martín-Rapún, X. Fan, S. Sayalero, M. Bahramnejad, F. Cuevas, and M. A. Pericàs, “Highly active organocatalysts for asymmetric anti-mannich reactions,” Chemistry—A European Journal, vol. 17, no. 32, pp. 8780–8783, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  176. T. Ooi, M. Taniguchi, M. Kameda, and K. Maruoka, “Direct asymmetric aldol reactions of glycine schiff base with aldehydes catalyzed by chiral quaternary ammonium salts,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 41, pp. 4542–4544, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  177. D. R. Burri, I. R. Shaikh, S.-C. Han, and S.-E. Park, “Facile heterogenization of homogeneous ferrocene catalyst on SBA-16,” Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, vol. 165, pp. 647–650, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  178. I. R. Shaikh, “Heterogenization of a basic ionic liquid bearing NTf2- anion on mesoporous SBA-16 and its use as catalyst in knoevenagel reaction,” in Proceedings of the National Conference on Drug Designing and Discovery, pp. 81–85, Devchand College, Arjun Nagar, Ta. Kagal, District Kolhapur, India, September 2013, http://devchandcollege.org/e%20proceeding%203D13.html.
  179. I. R. Shaikh and A. A. Shaikh, “Heterogenization of ionic liquid containing Hünig base on mesoporous SBA-16 and its use as catalyst in knovenagel condensation,” in Proceedings of the National Conference on Frontiers of Physical, Chemical and Biological Sciences (FPCBS '13), University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune, India, October 2013, published as special issue in: Environment Observer, vol. 13, pp. 35-36, 2013, http://www.seeram.org/.
  180. D. Petruzziello, M. Stenta, A. Mazzanti, and P. G. Cozzi, “A rational approach towards a new ferrocenyl pyrrolidine for stereoselective enamine catalysis,” Chemistry—A European Journal, vol. 19, no. 24, pp. 7696–7700, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  181. S. Sulzer-Mossé and A. Alexakis, “Chiral amines as organocatalysts for asymmetric conjugate addition to nitroolefins and vinyl sulfonesviaenamine activation,” Chemical Communications, no. 30, pp. 3123–3135, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  182. Z. An, W. Zhang, H. Shi, and J. He, “An effective heterogeneous l-proline catalyst for the asymmetric aldol reaction using anionic clays as intercalated support,” Journal of Catalysis, vol. 241, no. 2, pp. 319–327, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  183. L. Albrecht, G. Dickmeiss, C. F. Weise, C. Rodríguez-Escrich, and K. A. Jørgensen, “Dienamine-mediated inverse-electron-demand hetero-diels-alder reaction by using an enantioselective H-bond-directing strategy,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 51, no. 52, pp. 13109–13113, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  184. Q. Ren and J. Wang, “Recent developments in amine-catalyzed non-asymmetric transformations,” Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 542–557, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  185. T. Li, J. Zhu, D. Wu et al., “A strategy enabling enantioselective direct conjugate addition of inert aryl methane nucleophiles to enals with a chiral amine catalyst under mild conditions,” Chemistry—A European Journal, vol. 19, no. 28, pp. 9147–9150, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  186. G. Talavera, E. Reyes, J. L. Vicario, and L. Carrillo, “Cooperative dienamine/hydrogen-bonding catalysis: enantioselective formal [2+2] cycloaddition of enals with nitroalkenes,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 51, no. 17, pp. 4104–4107, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  187. D. B. Ramachary and Y. V. Reddy, “Dienamine catalysis: an emerging technology in organic synthesis,” European Journal of Organic Chemistry, no. 5, pp. 868–887, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  188. J. Chin, F. Mancin, N. Thavarajah, D. Lee, A. Lough, and D. S. Chung, “Controlling diaza-Cope rearrangement reactions with resonance-assisted hydrogen bonds,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 125, pp. 15276–15277, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  189. H. J. Kim, H. Kim, G. Alhakimi et al., “Preorganization in highly enantioselective diaza-Cope rearrangement reaction,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 127, pp. 16370–16371, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  190. H. J. Kim, W. Kim, A. J. Lough, B. M. Kim, and J. Chin, “A cobalt(III)-salen complex with an axial substituent in the diamine backbone: stereoselective recognition of amino alcohols,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 127, pp. 16776–16777, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  191. L. Cui, Y. Zhu, S. Luo, and J.-P. Cheng, “Primary-tertiary diamine/brønsted acid catalyzed C–C coupling between para-vinylanilines and aldehydes,” Chemistry—A European Journal, vol. 19, no. 29, pp. 9481–9484, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  192. M. Orlandi, M. Benaglia, L. Raimondi, and G. Celentano, “2-Aminoimidazolyl and 2-aminopyridyl (S)-prolinamides as versatile multifunctional organic catalysts for aldol, Michael and Diels Alder reactions,” European Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 12, pp. 2346–2354, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  193. H. Wang, Y. Wang, H. Song, Z. Zhou, and C. Tang, “Bifunctional squaramide-catalyzed one-pot sequential Michael addition/dearomative bromination: convenient access to optically active brominated pyrazol-5(4H)-ones with adjacent quaternary and tertiary stereocenters,” European Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 2013, no. 22, pp. 4844–4851, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  194. B. Tan, G. Hernández-Torres, and C. F. Barbas III, “Rationally designed amide donors for organocatalytic asymmetric Michael reactions,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 51, no. 22, pp. 5381–5385, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  195. D. Nguyen, R. K. Akhani, C. I. Sheppard, and S. L. Wiskur, “Structure-activity relationship of formamides as organocatalysts: the significance of formamide structure and conformation,” European Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 12, pp. 2279–2283, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  196. G. Lelais and D. W. C. MacMillan, “Modern strategies in organic catalysis: the advent and development of iminium activation,” Aldrichimica Acta, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 79–87, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  197. S. Lee and D. W. C. MacMillan, “Organocatalytic vinyl and Friedel-Crafts alkylations with trifluoroborate salts,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 129, no. 50, pp. 15438–15439, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  198. N. A. Paras and D. W. C. MacMillan, “New strategies in organocatalysis:The first enantioselective organocatalytic Friedel-Crafts alkylation,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 123, pp. 4370–4371, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  199. M. P. Brochu, S. P. Brown, and D. W. C. MacMillan, “Direct and enantioselective organocatalytic α-chlorination of aldehydes,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 126, no. 13, pp. 4108–4109, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  200. T. D. Beeson and D. W. C. MacMillan, “Enantioselective organocatalytic α-fluorination of aldehydes,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 127, no. 24, pp. 8826–8828, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  201. M. T. H. Fonseca and B. List, “Catalytic asymmetric intramolecular Michael reaction of aldehydes,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 43, no. 30, pp. 3958–3960, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  202. S. G. Ouellet, J. B. Tuttle, and D. W. MacMillan, “Enantioselective organocatalytic hydride reduction,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 127, pp. 32–33, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  203. MacMillan Imidazolidinone OrganoCatalysts are a trademark of Materia, Inc., https://www.princeton.edu/chemistry/macmillan/publications/aldrichimica.pdf.
  204. M. C. Holland, S. Paul, W. B. Schweizer et al., “Noncovalent interactions in organocatalysis: modulating conformational diversity and reactivity in the MacMillan catalyst,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 52, no. 31, pp. 7967–7971, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  205. G. Chollet, F. Rodriguez, and E. Schulz, “A new method for recycling asymmetric catalysts via formation of charge transfer complexes,” Organic Letters, vol. 8, pp. 539–542, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  206. L. Xing, J. H. Xie, Y. S. Chen, L. X. Wang, and Q. L. Zhou, “Simply modified chiral diphosphine: catalyst recycling via non-covalent absorption on carbon nanotubes,” Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis, vol. 350, pp. 1013–1016, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  207. R. Akiyama and S. Kobayashi, “Microencapsulated and related catalysts for organic chemistry and organic synthesis,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 109, no. 2, pp. 594–642, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  208. C. A. Wang, Y. Zhang, J. Y. Shi, and W. Wang, “A self-supported polymeric MacMillan catalyst for homogeneous organocatalysis and heterogeneous recycling,” Chemistry—A European Journal, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1110–1114, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  209. J. Seayad, A. M. Seayad, and B. List, “Catalytic asymmetric Pictet-Spengler reaction,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 128, no. 4, pp. 1086–1087, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  210. S. Hoffmann, A. M. Seayad, and B. List, “A powerful Brønsted acid catalyst for the organocatalytic asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of imines,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 44, no. 45, pp. 7424–7427, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  211. M. Rueping, E. Sugiono, C. Azap, T. Theissmann, and M. Bolte, “Enantioselective Brønsted acid catalyzed transfer hydrogenation: organocatalytic reduction of imines,” Organic Letters, vol. 7, no. 17, pp. 3781–3783, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  212. R. I. Storer, D. E. Carrera, Y. Ni, and D. W. C. MacMillan, “Enantioselective organocatalytic reductive amination,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 84–86, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  213. J. Zhou and B. List, “Organocatalytic asymmetric reaction cascade to substituted cyclohexylamines,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 129, no. 24, pp. 7498–7499, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  214. G. B. Rowland, H. Zhang, E. B. Rowland, S. Chennamadhavuni, Y. Wang, and J. C. Antilla, “Brønsted acid-catalyzed imine amidation,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 127, no. 45, pp. 15696–15697, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  215. T. Akiyama, Y. Tamura, J. Itoh, H. Morita, and K. Fuchibe, “Enantioselective aza-Diels-Alder reaction catalyzed by a chiral Brønsted acid: effect of the additive on the enantioselectivity,” Synlett, no. 1, Article ID Y07205ST, pp. 141–143, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  216. Y. Su, M. J. Bouma, L. Alcaraz et al., “Organocatalytic enantioselective one-pot four-component ugi-type multicomponent reaction for the synthesis of epoxy-tetrahydropyrrolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5-ones,” Chemistry—A European Journal, vol. 18, no. 40, pp. 12624–12627, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  217. D. J. Bayston, J. L. Fraser, M. R. Ashton, A. D. Baxter, M. E. C. Polywka, and E. Moses, “Preparation and use of a polymer supported BINAP hydrogenation catalyst,” The Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 63, p. 3137, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  218. D. S. Kundu, J. Schmidt, C. Bleschke, A. Thomas, and S. Blechert, “A microporous binol-derived phosphoric acid,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 51, no. 22, pp. 5456–5459, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  219. Y. Huang, A. K. Unni, A. N. Thadani, and V. H. Rawal, “Single enantiomers from a chiral-alcohol catalyst,” Nature, vol. 424, no. 6945, p. 146, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  220. H. M. Guo, L. Cheng, L. F. Cun, L. Z. Gong, A. Q. Mi, and Y. Z. Jiang, “L-Prolinamide-catalyzed direct nitroso aldol reactions of α-branched aldehydes: a distinct regioselectivity from that with L-proline,” Chemical Communications, no. 4, pp. 429–431, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  221. N. T. McDougal and S. E. Schaus, “Asymmetric Morita-Baylis-Hillman reactions catalyzed by chiral Brønsted acids,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 125, no. 40, pp. 12094–12095, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  222. P. Vachal and E. N. Jacobsen, “Structure-based analysis and optimization of a highly enantioselective catalyst for the strecker reaction,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 124, no. 34, pp. 10012–10014, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  223. G. D. Joly and E. N. Jacobsen, “Thiourea-catalyzed enantioselective hydrophosphonylation of imines: practical access to enantiomerically enriched α-amino phosphonic acids,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 126, p. 4102, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  224. A. G. Wenzel and E. N. Jacobsen, “Asymmetric catalytic Mannich reactions catalyzed by urea derivatives: enantioselective synthesis of β-aryl-β-amino acids,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 124, pp. 12964–12965, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  225. D. E. Fuerst and E. N. Jacobsen, “Thiourea-catalyzed enantioselective cyanosilylation of ketones,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 127, no. 25, pp. 8964–8965, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  226. M. S. Taylor and E. N. Jacobsen, “Highly enantioselective catalytic acyl-Pictet-Spengler reactions,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 126, no. 34, pp. 10558–10559, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  227. M. S. Talyor, N. Tokunaga, and E. N. Jacobsen, “Enantioselective thiourea-catalyzed acyl-mannich reactions of isoquinolines,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 44, pp. 6700–6704, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  228. X. Li, C. Yang, J.-L. Jin, X.-S. Xue, and J.-P. Cheng, “Synthesis of optically enriched spirocyclic benzofuran-2-ones by bifunctional thiourea-base catalyzed double-Michael addition of benzofuran-2-ones to dienones,” Chemistry—An Asian Journal, vol. 8, no. 05, pp. 997–1003, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  229. S.-R. Ban, X.-X. Zhu, Z.-P. Zhang, H.-Y. Xie, and Q.-S. Li, “Benzoylthiourea–pyrrolidine as another bifunctional organocatalyst: highly enantioselective michael addition of cyclohexanone to nitroolefins,” European Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 15, pp. 2977–2980, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  230. M. Tsakos, C. G. Kokotos, and G. Kokotos, “Primary amine-thioureas with improved catalytic properties for “difficult” Michael reactions: efficient organocatalytic syntheses of (S)-baclofen, (R)-baclofen and (S)-phenibut,” Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis, vol. 354, no. 4, pp. 740–746, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  231. M. J. O'Donnell, “The enantioselective synthesis of α-amino acids by phase-transfer catalysis with achiral Schiff base esters,” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 37, pp. 506–517, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  232. B. Lygo and B. J. Andrews, “The enantioselective synthesis of α-amino acids by phase-transfer catalysis with achiral Schiff base esters,” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 37, pp. 518–525, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  233. S.-K. Tian, R. Hong, and L. Deng, “Catalytic asymmetric cyanosilylation of ketones with chiral Lewis base,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 125, no. 33, pp. 9900–9901, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  234. T. B. Poulsen, C. Alemparte, and K. A. Jørgensen, “Enantioselective organocatalytic allylic amination,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 127, pp. 11614–11615, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  235. M. Bella and K. A. Jørgensen, “Organocatalytic enantioselective conjugate addition to alkynones,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 126, pp. 5672–5673, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  236. P. Melchiorre, “Cinchona-based primary amine catalysis in the asymmetric functionalization of carbonyl compounds,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 51, no. 39, pp. 9748–9770, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  237. E. Arceo and P. Melchiorre, “Extending the aminocatalytic HOMO-raising activation strategy: where is the limit?” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 51, no. 22, pp. 5290–5292, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  238. C.-K. Pei and M. Shi, “Asymmetric cyclization reactions of allenoates with imines or α,β-unsaturated ketones catalyzed by organocatalysts derived from cinchona alkaloids,” Chemistry—A European Journal, vol. 18, no. 22, pp. 6712–6716, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  239. A. Russo, G. Galdi, G. Croce, and A. Lattanzi, “Highly enantioselective epoxidation catalyzed by cinchona thioureas: synthesis of functionalized terminal epoxides bearing a quaternary stereogenic center,” Chemistry—A European Journal, vol. 18, no. 20, pp. 6152–6157, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  240. A. Kumar and S. S. Chimni, “Organocatalytic asymmetric direct aldol reaction of pyruvic aldehyde dimethyl acetal with isatin derivatives,” European Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 2013, no. 22, pp. 4780–4876, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  241. M.-X. Zhao, H. Zhou, W.-H. Tang, W.-S. Qu, and M. Shi, “Cinchona alkaloid-derived thiourea-catalyzed diastereo- and enantioselective [3+2] cycloaddition reaction of isocyanoacetates to isatins: a facile access to optically active spirooxindole oxazolines,” Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis, vol. 355, no. 7, pp. 1277–1283, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  242. F. Xu, M. Zacuto, N. Yoshikawa et al., “Asymmetric synthesis of telcagepant, a CGRP receptor antagonist for the treatment of migraine,” Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 75, no. 22, pp. 7829–7841, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  243. G. Rassu, V. Zambrano, L. Pinna et al., “Direct regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselective vinylogous Michael addition of prochiral 3-alkylideneoxindoles to nitroolefins,” Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis, vol. 355, no. 9, pp. 1881–1886, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  244. S. Brandau, A. Landa, J. Franzén, M. Marigo, and K. A. Jørgensen, “Organocatalytic conjugate addition of malonates to alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes: asymmetric formal synthesis of (-)-paroxetine, chiral lactams, and lactones,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 45, no. 26, pp. 4305–4309, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  245. L. J. Hounjet, C. Bannwarth, C. N. Garon, C. B. Caputo, S. Grimme, and D. W. Stephan, “Combinations of ethers and B(C6F5)3 function as hydrogenation catalysts,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 52, no. 29, pp. 7492–7495, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  246. X.-F. Cai, M.-W. Chen, Z.-S. Ye et al., “Asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of 3-nitroquinolines: facile access to cyclic nitro compounds with two contiguous stereocenters,” Chemistry—An Asian Journal, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 1381–1385, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  247. M. Kitamura, S. Shirakawa, and K. Maruoka, “Powerful chiral phase-transfer catalysts for the asymmetric synthesis of alpha-alkyl- and alpha,alpha-dialkyl-alpha-amino acids,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 44, pp. 1549–1551, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  248. T. Ooi, Y. Arimura, Y. Hiraiwa et al., “Highly enantioselective monoalkylation of p-chlorobenzaldehyde imine of glycine tert-butyl ester under mild phase-transfer conditions,” Tetrahedron: Asymmetry, vol. 17, pp. 603–606, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  249. T. Ooi and K. Maruoka, “Development and applications of C2-symmetric, chiral, phase-transfer catalysts,” Aldrichimica Acta, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 77–86, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  250. E. J. Corey, R. K. Bakshi, and S. Shibata, “Highly enantioselective borane reduction of ketones catalyzed by chiral oxazaborolidines. Mechanism and synthetic implications,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 109, pp. 5551–5553, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  251. E. J. Corey, R. K. Bakshi, S. Shibata, C. P. Chen, and V. K. Singh, “A stable and easily prepared catalyst for the enantioselective reduction of ketones. Applications to multistep syntheses,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 109, pp. 7925–7926, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  252. E. H. M. Kirton, G. Tughan, R. E. Morris, and R. A. Field, “Rationalising the effect of reducing agent on the oxazaborolidine-mediated asymmetric reduction of N-substituted imines,” Tetrahedron Letters, vol. 45, pp. 853–855, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  253. B. T. Cho and Y. S. Chun, “Enantioselective synthesis of optically active metolachlor via asymmetric reduction,” Tetrahedron Asymmetry, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 337–340, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  254. B. T. Cho and Y. S. Chun, “Asymmetric reduction of N-substituted ketimines with the reagent prepared from borane and (S)-(–)-2-amino-3-methyl-1,1-diphenylbutan-1-ol (itsuno's reagent): enantioselective synthesis of optically active secondary amines,” Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions, vol. 1, pp. 3200–3201, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  255. R. D. Tillyer, C. Boudreau, D. Tschaen, U.-H. Dolling, and P. J. Reider, “Asymmetric reduction of keto oxime ethers using oxazaborolidine reagents. The enantioselective synthesis of cyclic amino alcohols,” Tetrahedron Letters, vol. 36, no. 25, pp. 4337–4340, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  256. D. H. Ryu and E. J. Corey, “Triflimide activation of a chiral oxazaborolidine leads to a more general catalytic system for enantioselective Diels-Alder addition,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 125, pp. 6388–6390, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  257. Y. Tu, Z.-X. Wang, and Y. Shi, “An efficient asymmetric epoxidation method for trans-olefins mediated by a fructose-derived ketone,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 118, no. 40, pp. 9806–9807, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  258. Z.-X. Wang, Y. Tu, M. Frohn, J.-R. Zhang, and Y. Shi, “An efficient catalytic asymmetric epoxidation method,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 119, no. 46, pp. 11224–11235, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  259. Z.-X. Wang, Y. Tu, M. Frohn, J.-R. Zhang, and Y. Shi, “An efficient catalytic asymmetric epoxidation method,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 119, no. 46, pp. 11224–11235, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  260. M. Marigo, J. Franzén, T. B. Poulsen, W. Zhuang, and K. A. Jørgensen, “Asymmetric organocatalytic epoxidation of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes with hydrogen peroxide,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 127, no. 19, pp. 6964–6965, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  261. N. Marion, S. Díez-González, and S. P. Nolan, “Inside cover: a molecular solomon link (Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 1-2/2007),” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 46, p. 2, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  262. M. S. Kerr and T. Rovis, “Enantioselective synthesis of quaternary stereocenters via a catalytic asymmetric stetter reaction,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 126, no. 29, pp. 8876–8877, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  263. M. He, J. R. Struble, and J. W. Bode, “Highly enantioselective azadiene diels−alder reactions catalyzed by chiral N-heterocyclic carbenes,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 128, pp. 8418–8420, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  264. M. He, G. J. Uc, and J. W. Bode, “Chiral N-heterocyclic carbene catalyzed, enantioselective oxodiene Diels-Alder reactions with low catalyst loadings,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 128, pp. 15088–15089, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  265. P.-C. Chiang, J. Kaeobamrung, and J. W. Bode, “Enantioselective, cyclopentene-forming annulations via NHC-catalyzed benzoin-oxy-Cope reactions,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 129, no. 12, pp. 3520–3521, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  266. S. S. Sohn and J. W. Bode, “N-heterocyclic carbene catalyzed C–C bond cleavage in redox esterifications of chiral formylcyclopropanes,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 45, pp. 6021–6024, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  267. A. Grossmann and D. Enders, “N-heterocyclic carbene catalyzed domino reactions,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 314–325, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  268. D. Enders, R. Hahn, and I. Atodiresei, “Asymmetric synthesis of functionalized tetrahydronaphthalenes via an organocatalytic nitroalkane-michael/henry domino reaction,” Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis, vol. 355, no. 6, pp. 1126–1136, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  269. H. Pellissier, “Recent developments in asymmetric organocatalytic domino reactions,” Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis, vol. 354, no. 2-3, pp. 237–294, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  270. L. Wu, Y. Wang, H. Song, L. Tang, Z. Zhou, and C. Tang, “Enantioselective organocatalytic domino Michael/aldol reactions: an efficient procedure for the stereocontrolled construction of 2H-thiopyrano[2,3-b]quinoline scaffolds,” Chemistry—An Asian Journal, vol. 8, pp. 2204–2210, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  271. J. Zhao, C. Mück-Lichtenfeld, and A. Studer, “Cooperative N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) and ruthenium redox catalysis: oxidative esterification of aldehydes with air as the terminal oxidant,” Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis, vol. 355, no. 6, pp. 1098–1106, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  272. R. Blanc, P. Nava, M. Rajzman, L. Commeiras, and J.-L. Parrain, “N-Heterocyclic carbene mediated organocatalytic transfer of tin onto aldehydes: an easy access to syn-diols and mechanistic studies,” Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis, vol. 354, no. 10, pp. 2038–2048, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  273. S. De Sarkar, A. Biswas, R. C. Samanta, and A. Studer, “Catalysis with N-heterocyclic carbenes under oxidative conditions,” Chemistry—A European Journal, vol. 19, no. 15, pp. 4664–4678, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  274. H. U. Vora, P. Wheeler, and T. Rovis, “Exploiting acyl and enol azolium intermediates via N-hetero-cyclic carbene-catalyzed reactions of α-reducible aldehydes,” Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis, vol. 354, no. 9, pp. 1617–1639, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  275. J. Mo, L. Shen, and Y. R. Chi, “Direct β-activation of saturated aldehydes to formal Michael acceptors through oxidative NHC catalysis,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 52, no. 33, pp. 8588–8591, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  276. M. Hans, J. Wouters, A. Demonceau, and L. Delaude, “Mechanistic insight into the staudinger reaction catalyzed by N-heterocyclic carbenes,” Chemistry—A European Journal, vol. 19, no. 29, pp. 9668–9676, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  277. W. Raimondi, D. Bonne, and J. Rodriguez, “1,2-dicarbonyl compounds as pronucleophiles in organocatalytic asymmetric transformations,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 40–42, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  278. A. Rai and L. D. S. Yadav, “Cyclopropenone-catalyzed direct conversion of aldoximes and primary amides into nitriles,” European Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 10, pp. 1889–1893, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  279. J. Marco-Martínez, V. Marcos, S. Reboredo, S. Filippone, and N. Martín, “Asymmetric organocatalysis in fullerenes chemistry: enantioselective phosphine-catalyzed cycloaddition of allenoates onto C60,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 52, no. 19, pp. 5115–5119, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  280. A.-L. Lee, “Organocatalyzed carbonyl–olefin metathesis,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 52, no. 17, pp. 4524–4525, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  281. F. Kniep, S. H. Jungbauer, Q. Zhang et al., “Organocatalysis by neutral multidentate halogen-bond donors,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 52, no. 27, pp. 7028–7032, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  282. J. H. Kim, I. Coric, S. Vellalath, and B. List, “The catalytic asymmetric acetalization,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 52, no. 16, pp. 4474–4477, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  283. P. Chauhan and S. S. Chimni, “Organocatalytic enantioselective Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction of maleimides with isatins,” Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 586–592, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  284. P. Chauhan, J. Kaur, and S. S. Chimni, “Asymmetric organocatalytic addition reactions of maleimides: a promising approach towards the synthesis of chiral succinimide derivatives,” Chemistry—An Asian Journal, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 328–346, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  285. C. C. J. Loh and D. Enders, “Exploiting the electrophilic properties of indole intermediates: new options in designing asymmetric reactions,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 46–48, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  286. A. Martínez, M. J. Webber, S. Müller, and B. List, “Versatile access to chiral indolines by catalytic asymmetric fischer indolization,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 52, no. 36, pp. 948–9490, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  287. Z. Shi and T.-P. Loh, “Organocatalytic synthesis of highly functionalized pyridines at room temperature,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 52, no. 33, pp. 8584–8587, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  288. A. V. Malkov, S. Stoncius, M. Bell et al., “Mechanistic dichotomy in the asymmetric allylation of aldehydes with allyltrichlorosilanes catalyzed by chiral pyridine N-oxides,” Chemistry—A European Journal, vol. 19, no. 28, pp. 9167–9185, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  289. K. Shibatomi and A. Narayama, “Catalytic enantioselective α-chlorination of carbonyl compounds,” Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 812–823, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  290. C. C. J. Loh and D. Enders, “Merging organocatalysis and gold catalysis—a critical evaluation of the underlying concepts,” Chemistry—A European Journal, vol. 18, no. 33, pp. 10212–10225, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  291. H.-N. Yuan, S. Wang, J. Nie, W. Meng, Q. Yao, and J.-A. Ma, “Hydrogen-bond-directed enantioselective decarboxylative Mannich reaction of β-ketoacids with ketimines: application to the synthesis of anti-HIV drug DPC 083,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 52, no. 14, pp. 3869–3873, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  292. Y. Hayashi, D. Sakamoto, H. Shomura, and D. Hashizume, “Asymmetric Mannich reaction of α-keto imines catalyzed by diarylprolinol silyl ether,” Chemistry—A European Journal, vol. 19, no. 24, pp. 7678–7681, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  293. W.-Q. Zhang, L.-F. Cheng, J. Yu, and L.-Z. Gong, “A chiral bis(betaine) catalyst for the mannich reaction of azlactones and aliphatic imines,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 51, no. 17, pp. 4085–4088, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  294. L. Hong and R. Wang, “Recent advances in asymmetric organocatalytic construction of 3,3′-spirocyclic oxindoles,” Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis, vol. 355, no. 6, pp. 1023–1052, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  295. M.-X. Wei, C.-T. Wang, J.-Y. Du et al., “Enantioselective synthesis of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids (+)-vittatine, (+)-epi-vittatine, and (+)-buphanisine,” Chemistry—An Asian Journal, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 1966–1971, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  296. H.-J. Yang, F.-J. Xiong, X.-F. Chen, and F.-E. Chen, “Highly enantioselective thiolysis of prochiral cyclic anhydrides catalyzed by amino alcohol bifunctional organocatalysts and its application to the synthesis of pregabalin,” European Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 2013, no. 21, pp. 4495–4489, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  297. R. Selke and M. Capka, “Carbohydrate phosphinites as chiral ligands for asymmetric syntheses catalyzed by complexes: part VIII: immobilization of cationic rhodium(I) chelates of phenyl 4,6-O-(R)-benzylidene-2,3-bis(O-diphenylphosphino)-β-D-glucopyranoside on silica,” Journal of Molecular Catalysis, vol. 63, pp. 319–334, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  298. M. Ichikawa, “‘Ship-in-Bottle’ catalyst technology. Novel templating fabrication of platinum group metals nanoparticles and wires in micro/mesopores,” Platinum Metals Review, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 3–14, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  299. V. Trevisan, M. Signoretto, S. Colonna, V. Pironti, and G. Strukul, “Microencapsulated chloroperoxidase as a recyclable catalyst for the enantioselective oxidation of sulfides with hydrogen peroxide,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 43, no. 31, pp. 4097–4099, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  300. Á. Zsigmond, F. Notheisz, G. Csjernyik, and J.-E. Bäckvall, “Ruthenium-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of alcohols on zeolite-encapsulated cobalt salophen catalyst,” Topics in Catalysis, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 119–124, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  301. N. Legagneux, E. Jeanneau, A. Thomas et al., “Grafting reaction of platinum organometallic complexes on silica-supported or unsupported heteropolyacids,” Organometallics, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 1783–1793, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  302. Y. Wan, F. Zhang, Y. Lu, and H. Li, “Immobilization of Ru(II) complex on functionalized SBA-15 and its catalytic performance in aqueous homoallylic alcohol isomerization,” Journal of Molecular Catalysis A, vol. 267, pp. 165–172, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  303. D. R. Burri, I. R. Shaikh, K.-M. Choi, and S.-E. Park, “Facile heterogenization of homogeneous ferrocene catalyst on SBA-15 and its hydroxylation activity,” Catalysis Communications, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 731–735, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  304. M. Kuroki, T. Asefa, W. Whitnal et al., “Synthesis and properties of 1,3,5-benzene periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO): novel aromatic PMO with three point attachments and unique thermal transformations,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 124, no. 46, pp. 13886–13895, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  305. T. Maschmeyer, F. Rey, G. Sankar, and J. M. Thomas, “Heterogeneous catalysts obtained by grafting metallocene complexes onto mesoporous silica,” Nature, vol. 378, pp. 159–162, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  306. L. Hamidipour, Z. Ghasemzadeh, F. Farzaneh, and M. Ghandi, “Immobilization of Cu(II)-histidine complex on Al-MCM-41 as catalyst for epoxidation of alkenes,” Journal of Sciences, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 29–36, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  307. J. G. Mesu, D. Baute, H. J. Tromp, E. E. Van Faassen, and B. M. Weckhuysen, “Synthesis and characterization of zeolite encaged enzyme-mimetic copper histidine complexes,” Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, vol. 143, pp. 287–293, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  308. B. M. Weckhuysen, A. A. Verberckmoes, L. Fu, and R. A. Schoonheydt, “Zeolite-encapsulated copper(II) amino acid complexes: synthesis, spectroscopy, and catalysis,” Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 100, no. 22, pp. 9456–9461, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  309. D. Xuereb, J. Dzierzak, and R. Raja, “Biomimetic single-site heterogeneous catalysts: design strategies and catalytic potential,” in Heterogenized Homogeneous Catalysts For Fine Chemicals Production, vol. 33 of Catalysis by Metal Complexes, pp. 37–63, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  310. P. Barbaro and F. Liguori, Eds., Heterogenized Homogeneous Catalysts for Fine Chemicals Production, vol. 33 of Materials and Processes Series: Catalysis by Metal Complexes, Springer, 2010.
  311. Z. An, W. Zhang, H. Shi, and J. He, “An effective heterogeneous l-proline catalyst for the asymmetric aldol reaction using anionic clays as intercalated support,” Journal of Catalysis, vol. 241, pp. 319–327, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  312. J. W. Wiench, Y. S. Avadhut, N. Maity et al., “Characterization of covalent linkages in organically functionalized MCM-41 mesoporous materials by solid-state NMR and theoretical calculations,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 111, no. 15, pp. 3877–3885, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  313. Q. Gao, W. Xu, Y. Xu et al., “Amino acid adsorption on mesoporous materials: influence of types of amino acids, modification of mesoporous materials, and solution conditions,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 112, no. 7, pp. 2261–2267, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  314. S. Luo, J. Li, L. Zhang, H. Xu, and J. P. Cheng, “Noncovalently supported heterogeneous chiral amine catalysts for asymmetric direct aldol and Michael addition reactions,” Chemistry—A European Journal, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 1273–1281, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  315. C. Aprile, F. Giacalone, M. Gruttadauria et al., “New ionic liquid-modified silica gels as recyclable materials for l-proline- or H-Pro-Pro-Asp-NH2-catalyzed aldol reaction,” Green Chemistry, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 1328–1334, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  316. I. Hermans, J. Van Deun, K. Houthoofd, J. Peeters, and P. A. Jacobs, “Silica-immobilized N-hydroxyphthalimide: an efficient heterogeneous autoxidation catalyst,” Journal of Catalysis, vol. 251, no. 1, pp. 204–212, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  317. K. Yamaguchi, T. Imago, Y. Ogasawara, J. Kasai, M. Kotani, and N. Mizuno, “An immobilized organocatalyst for cyanosilylation and epoxidation,” Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis, vol. 348, no. 12-13, pp. 1516–1520, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  318. H. Hagiwara, S. Inotsume, M. Fukushima, T. Hoshi, and T. Suzuki, “Heterogeneous amine catalyst grafted on amorphous silica: an effective organocatalyst for microwave-promoted Michael reaction of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in water,” Chemistry Letters, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 926–927, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  319. A. Corma and H. Garcia, “Silica-bound homogenous catalysts as recoverable and reusable catalysts in organic synthesis,” Advanced Synthesis Catalysis, vol. 348, pp. 1391–1412, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  320. C. Ayats, A. H. Henseler, and M. A. Pericás, “A solid-supported organocatalyst for continuous-flow enantioselective aldol reactions,” ChemSusChem, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 320–325, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  321. D. Font, C. Jimeno, and M. A. Pericàs, “Polystyrene-supported hydroxyproline: an insoluble, recyclable organocatalyst for the asymmetric aldol reaction in water,” Organic Letters, vol. 8, pp. 4653–4655, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  322. D. Font, S. Sayalero, C. Jimeno, and M. A. Pericàs, “Toward an artificial aldolase,” Organic Letters, vol. 10, pp. 337–340, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  323. D. Font, S. Sayalero, A. Bastero, C. Jimeno, and M. A. Pericàs, “Toward an artificial aldolase,” Organic Letters, vol. 12, p. 2678, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  324. M. Benaglia, M. Cinquini, F. Cozzi, A. Puglisi, and G. Celentano, “Poly(ethylene-glycol)-supported proline: a recyclable aminocatalyst for the enantioselective synthesis of γ-nitroketones by conjugate addition,” Journal of Molecular Catalysis A, vol. 204-205, pp. 157–163, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  325. D. Q. Xu, S. P. Luo, Y. F. Wang et al., “Organocatalysts wrapped around by poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEGs): a unique host-guest system for asymmetric Michael addition reactions,” Chemical Communications, no. 42, pp. 4393–4395, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  326. A. M. Caminade, A. Ouali, M. Keller, and J. P. Majoral, “Organocatalysis with dendrimers,” Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 41, pp. 4113–4125, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  327. L. Zhang, S. Luo, and J.-P. Cheng, “Non-covalent immobilization of asymmetric organocatalysts,” Catalysis Science and Technology, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 507–516, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  328. B.-C. Hong, H.-C. Tseng, and S.-H. Chen, “Synthesis of aromatic aldehydes by organocatalytic [4+2] and [3+3] cycloaddition of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes,” Tetrahedron, vol. 63, no. 13, pp. 2840–2850, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  329. M. J. Gaunt, C. C. C. Johansson, A. McNally, and N. T. Vo, “Enantioselective organocatalysis,” Drug Discovery Today, vol. 12, no. 1-2, pp. 8–27, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  330. D. J. Xuereb and R. Raja, “Design strategies for engineering selectivity in bio-inspired heterogeneous catalysts,” Catalysis Science and Technology, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 517–534, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  331. D. J. Xuereb, Strategies for organocatalyst heterogenisation and performance in selective transformations [Ph.D. thesis], University of Southampton, 2012.
  332. D. E. De Vos, I. F. J. Vankelecom, and P. A. Jacobs, Eds., Chiral Catalyst Immobilization and Recycling, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2000.
  333. J. Zhou, J. Wan, X. Ma, and W. Wang, “Copolymer-supported heterogeneous organocatalyst for asymmetric aldol addition in aqueous medium,” Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, vol. 10, pp. 4179–4185, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  334. P. C. Bulman Page, A. Mace, D. Arquier et al., “Towards heterogeneous organocatalysis: chiral iminium cations supported on porous materials for enantioselective alkene epoxidation,” Catalysis Science & Technology, vol. 3, pp. 2330–2339, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  335. J. Franzén, M. Marigo, D. Fielenbach, T. C. Wabnitz, A. Kjaersgaard, and K. A. Jørgensen, “A general organocatalyst for direct α-functionalization of aldehydes: stereoselective C–C, C–N, C–F, C–Br, and C–S bond-forming reactions. Scope and mechanistic insights,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 127, no. 51, pp. 18296–18304, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  336. M. Fochi, L. Gramigna, A. Mazzanti et al., “Solvent-free non-covalent organocatalysis: enantioselective addition of nitroalkanes to alkylideneindolenines as a flexible gateway to optically active tryptamine derivatives,” Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis, vol. 354, pp. 71373–71380, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  337. Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. L. Sun et al., “4-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridine-embedded nanoporous conjugated polymer as a highly active heterogeneous organocatalyst,” Chemistry—A European Journal, vol. 18, no. 20, pp. 6328–6334, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  338. C. A. Wang, Y. Zhang, J. Y. Shi, and W. Wang, “A self-supported polymeric MacMillan catalyst for homogeneous organocatalysis and heterogeneous recycling,” Chemistry—An Asian Journal, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1110–1114, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  339. V. Lucchini, M. Noè, M. Selva, M. Fabris, and A. Perosa, “Cooperative nucleophilic-electrophilic organocatalysis by ionic liquids,” Chemical Communications, vol. 48, no. 42, pp. 5178–5180, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  340. D. Kühbeck, G. Saidulu, K. R. Reddy, and D. D. Díaz, “Critical assessment of the efficiency of chitosan biohydrogel beads as recyclable and heterogeneous organocatalyst for C–C bond formation,” Green Chemistry, vol. 14, pp. 378–392, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  341. S. Verma, S. L. Jain, and B. Sain, “An efficient biomaterial supported bifunctional organocatalyst (ES–SO3- C5H5NH+) for the synthesis of β-amino carbonyls,” Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, vol. 9, pp. 2314–2318, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  342. M. S. DeClue and J. S. Siegel, “Polysiloxane-bound ligand accelerated catalysis: a modular approach to heterogeneous and homogeneous macromolecular asymmetric dihydroxylation ligands,” Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, vol. 2, pp. 2287–2298, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  343. G. Kardos and T. Soós, “Tether-free immobilized bifunctional squaramide organocatalysts for batch and flow reactions,” European Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 2013, no. 21, pp. 4490–4494, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  344. P. Kasaplar, P. Riente, C. Hartmann, and M. A. Pericàs, “A polystyrene-supported, highly recyclable squaramide organocatalyst for the enantioselective Michael addition of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds to β-nitrostyrenes,” Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis, vol. 354, no. 16, pp. 2905–2910, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  345. K. E. Alza, C. Rodríguez-Escrich, S. Sayalero, A. Bastero, and M. A. Pericàs, “A solid-supported organocatalyst for highly stereoselective, batch, and continuous-flow mannich reactions,” Chemistry—A European Journal, vol. 15, no. 39, pp. 10167–10172, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  346. P. Riente, J. Yadav, and M. A. Pericàs, “A solid-supported organocatalyst for continuous-flow enantioselective aldol reactions,” ChemSusChem, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 320–325, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  347. M. Kotke and P. Schreiner, “(Thio)Urea Organocatalysts,” in Hydrogen Bonding in Organic Synthesis, P. M. Pihko, Ed., pp. 141–352, Wiley-VCH, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  348. Y. Takemoto, “Development of chiral thiourea catalysts and its application to asymmetric catalytic reactions,” Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 58, pp. 593–601, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  349. M. Tsakos, C. G. Kokotos, and G. Kokotos, “Primary amine-thioureas with improved catalytic properties for “difficult” Michael reactions: efficient organocatalytic syntheses of (S)-baclofen, (R)-baclofen and (S)-phenibut,” Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis, vol. 354, no. 4, pp. 740–746, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  350. M. Tsakos and C. G. Kokotos, “Organocatalytic “Difficult” Michael reaction of ketones with nitrodienes utilizing a primary amine—thiourea based on di-tert-butyl aspartate,” European Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 2012, no. 3, pp. 576–580, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  351. J. Hine, S.-M. Linden, and V. M. Kanagasabapathy, “1,8-Biphenylenediol is a double-hydrogen-bonding catalyst for reaction of an epoxide with a nucleophile,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 107, no. 4, pp. 1082–1083, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  352. J. Hine, S. M. Linden, and V. M. Kanagasabapathy, “Double-hydrogen-bonding catalysis of the reaction of phenyl glycidyl ether with diethylamine by 1,8-biphenylenediol,” The Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 50, pp. 5096–5099, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  353. C. K. De, E. G. Klauber, and D. Seidel, “Merging nucleophilic and hydrogen bonding catalysis: an anion binding approach to the kinetic resolution of amines,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 131, pp. 17060–17061, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  354. R. P. Herrera, V. Sgarzani, L. Bernardi, and A. Ricci, “Catalytic enantioselective friedel-crafts alkylation of indoles with nitroalkenes by using a simple thiourea organocatalyst,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 44, pp. 6576–6579, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  355. “Special issue on “Organocatalysis”,” Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis, vol. 346, no. 9-10, 2004.
  356. F. Cozzi, “Immobilization of organic catalysts: when, why, and how,” Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis, vol. 348, pp. 1367–1390, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  357. T. E. Kristensen and T. Hansen, “Polymer-supported chiral organocatalysts: synthetic strategies for the road towards affordable polymeric immobilization,” European Journal of Organic Chemistry, no. 17, pp. 3179–3204, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  358. M. Benaglia, F. Cozzi, and A. Puglisi, “Polymer-supported organic catalysts,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 103, no. 9, pp. 3401–3429, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  359. M. Benaglia, Ed., Recoverable and Recyclable Catalysts, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 2009.
  360. J. Lu and P. H. Toy, “Organic polymer supports for synthesis and for reagent and catalyst immobilization,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 109, no. 2, pp. 815–838, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  361. M. Gruttadauria, F. Giacalone, and R. Noto, “Supported proline and proline-derivatives as recyclable organocatalysts,” Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1666–1688, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  362. F. Calderón, R. Fernández, F. Sánchez, and A. Fernández-Mayoralas, “Asymmetric aldol reaction using immobilized proline on mesoporous support,” Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis, vol. 347, no. 10, pp. 1395–1403, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  363. L. Qin, L. Zhang, Q. Jin, J. Zhang, B. Han, and M. Liu, “Supramolecular assemblies of amphiphilic L-proline regulated by compressed CO2 as a recyclable organocatalyst for the asymmetric aldol reaction,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 52, no. 30, pp. 7761–7765. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  364. S. Luo, J. Li, L. Zhang, H. Xu, and J.-P. Cheng, “Noncovalently supported heterogeneous chiral amine catalysts for asymmetric direct aldol and Michael addition reactions,” Chemistry—A European Journal, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 1273–1281, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  365. H. Hagiwara, S. Inotsume, M. Fukushima, T. Hoshi, and T. Suzuki, “Heterogeneous amine catalyst grafted on amorphous silica: an effective organocatalyst for microwave-promoted Michael reaction of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in water,” Chemistry Letters, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 926–927, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  366. I. Hermans, J. Van Deun, K. Houthoofd, J. Peeters, and P. A. Jacobs, “Silica-immobilized N-hydroxyphthalimide: an efficient heterogeneous autoxidation catalyst,” Journal of Catalysis, vol. 251, no. 1, pp. 204–212, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  367. A. Corma and H. Garcia, “Silica-bound homogenous catalysts as recoverable and reusable catalysts in organic synthesis,” Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis, vol. 348, pp. 1391–1412, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  368. K. Yamaguchi, T. Imago, Y. Ogasawara, J. Kasai, M. Kotani, and N. Mizuno, “An immobilized organocatalyst for cyanosilylation and epoxidation,” Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis, vol. 348, no. 12-13, pp. 1516–1520, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  369. A. Córdova and J. Hafrén, “Direct Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Organic Acid and Amino Acid-Catalyzed Modification of Amines and Alcohols,” International Patent WO 2006068611 A1 20060629.
  370. R. S. Verma and V. Polshettiwar, “Magnetic nanoparticle-supported glutathione as a sustainable organocatalyst,” Patent no.: US, 8324125 B2, December 2012.
  371. R. C. Garrett and H. Yang, “Sulfonamide-Based Organocatalysis and Method for their Use,” Patent no.: US 8, 399, 684 B2, March 2013.
  372. A. M. Caminade, C. O. Turrin, R. Laurent, A. Ouali, and B. Delavaux-Nicot, Eds., Dendrimers Towards Catalytic Material and Biomedical Uses, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 2011.
  373. P. Servin, R. Laurent, L. Gonsalvi et al., “Grafting of water-soluble phosphines to dendrimers and their use in catalysis: positive dendritic effects in aqueous media,” Dalton Transactions, no. 23, pp. 4432–4434, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  374. M. Keller, A. Perrier, R. Linhardt et al., “Dendrimers or nanoparticles as supports for the design of efficient and recoverable organocatalysts?” Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis, vol. 355, no. 9, pp. 1748–1754, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  375. Thematic Series “Organocatalysis” (Guest Editor: Benjamin List) Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2012, http://www.beilstein-journals.org/bjoc/browse/singleSeries.htm?sn=27.
  376. Y. S. Lee, M. M. Alam, and R. S. Keri, “Enantioselective reactions of N-acyliminium ions using chiral organocatalysts,” Chemistry—An Asian Journal, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 2906–2919, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  377. F. Lv, S. Liu, and W. Hu, “Recent advances in the use of chiral brønsted acids as cooperative catalysts in cascade and multicomponent reactions,” Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 824–836, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  378. W. Yan, X. Shi, and C. Zhong, “Secondary amines as lewis bases in nitroalkene activation,” Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 904–914, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  379. S. Ulf and M. Rainer, “Recent advances in organocatalytic methods for asymmetric C–C bond formation,” Chemistry—A European Journal, vol. 19, no. 43, pp. 14346–14396, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  380. S. Narayanaperumal, D. G. Rivera, R. C. Silva, and M. W. Paixão, “Terpene-derived bifunctional thioureas in asymmetric organocatalysis,” ChemCatChem, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 2756–2773, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  381. L.-W. Xu, “Powerful amino acid derived bifunctional phosphine catalysts bearing a hydrogen bond donor in asymmetric synthesis,” ChemCatChem, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 2775–2784, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  382. N. Kielland, C. J. Whiteoak, and A. W. Kleij, “Stereoselective synthesis with carbon dioxide,” Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis, vol. 355, no. 11-12, pp. 2115–2138, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  383. S. Mohammadi, R. Heiran, R. P. Herrera, and E. Marqués-López, “Isatin as a strategic motif for asymmetric catalysis,” ChemCatChem, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 2131–2148, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar