Journal of Catalysts / 2014 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Organocatalysis: Key Trends in Green Synthetic Chemistry, Challenges, Scope towards Heterogenization, and Importance from Research and Industrial Point of View

Table 1

List of some of the industrially applied reactions and catalysts.

ReactionCatalystInventor (Year)

Sulphuric acid (lead—chamber process) Clement, Desormes (1806)
Chlorine production by HCl oxidationCuSO4Deacon (1867)
Nitric acid by NH3 oxidationPt, Rh netsOstwald (1906)
Fat hardeningNiNormann (1907)
Ammonia synthesis (H2 + N2)FeMittach, Haber, Bosch (1908);
Production 1913 BASF
Hydrogenation of coal to hydrocarbonsFe, Mo, SnBergius (1913); Pier (1927)
Methanol synthesis from Co/H2Zno/Cr2O3Mittach (1923)
Hydrocarbons from CO/H2 (motor fuels)Fe, Co, NiFischer, Tropsch (1925)
Alkylation of olefins to gasolineAlCl3Pines (1932)
Cracking of hydrocarbonsAl2O3/SiO2Houdry (1937)
Cracking in a fluidized bedAluminosilicatesLewis, Gilliland (1939)
Ethylene polymerization at low pressureTi compoundsZiegler, Natta (1954)
Hydrogenation, isomerization, hydroformylationRh-, Ru complexesWilkinson (1964)
Methanol carbonylation to acetic acidCo/iodideBASF (1960);
Rh/iodideMonsanto Co. (1966);
IridiumBP Chemicals Ltd. (2000)
Asymmetric hydrogenationRh/chiral phosphineKnowles (1974)
Three-way catalystPt, Rh/monolithGeneral Motors (1974)
Methanol conversion to hydrocarbonsZeolitesMobil Chemical Co. (1975)
Alpha-olefins from ethyleneNi/chelate phosphineShell company (1977)
Sharpless (epi) oxidationTI/ROOH/TartarateMay, Baker, Upjohn, ARCO (1981)
Selective oxidations with H2O2TS-1 (titanium silicate)Enichem (1983)
HydroformylationRh/phosphineRhone-Poulene-Ruhrchemie (1984)
Polymerization of olefinsZirconocene/MAOSinn, Kaminsky (1985)
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)V, W, Ti oxides/monolith1986