Table of Contents
Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 821462, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/821462
Clinical Study

Refractory Status Epilepticus: Experience in a Neurological Intensive Care Unit

1Instituto Neurologico de Colombia, Neurological Intensive Care Unit, Calle 55 No. 46-36, 050012 Medellín, Colombia
2Instituto Neurologico de Colombia, Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, Medellin, Colombia
3Instituto Neurologico de Colombia, Research and Education Department, Medellin, Colombia
4Baylor College of Medicine Vascular Neurology and Neurocritical Care Division, Department of Neurology, Houston, TX, USA

Received 2 May 2013; Revised 30 July 2013; Accepted 12 August 2013; Published 2 January 2014

Academic Editor: Marieke Van Zoelen

Copyright © 2014 O. H. Hernandez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. J. Abou Khaled and L. J. Hirsch, “Updates in the management of seizures and status epilepticus in critically ill patients,” Neurologic Clinics, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 385–408, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. H. Arif and L. J. Hirsch, “Treatment of status epilepticus,” Seminars in Neurology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 342–354, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. W. Y. Chen and C. G. Wasterlain, “Status epilepticus: pathophysiology and management in adults,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 246–256, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. A. Mirski and P. N. Varelas, “Seizures and status epilepticus in the critically ill,” Critical Care Clinics, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 115–147, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. J. DeLorenzo, E. J. Waterhouse, A. R. Towne et al., “Persistent nonconvulsive status epilepticus after the control of convulsive status epilepticus,” Epilepsia, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 833–840, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. R. Towne, E. J. Waterhouse, J. G. Boggs et al., “Prevalence of nonconvulsive status epilepticus in comatose patients,” Neurology, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 340–345, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. Claassen, S. A. Mayer, R. G. Kowalski, R. G. Emerson, and L. J. Hirsch, “Detection of electrographic seizures with continuous EEG monitoring in critically ill patients,” Neurology, vol. 62, no. 10, pp. 1743–1748, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. K. G. Jordan, “Continuous EEG and evoked potential monitoring in the neuroscience intensive care unit,” Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 445–475, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. Maganti, P. Gerber, C. Drees, and S. Chung, “Nonconvulsive status epilepticus,” Epilepsy and Behavior, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 572–586, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. L. Fernández-Torre, “Estado epiléptico no convulsivo en adultos en coma,” Revue Neurologique, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 300–308, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  11. G. Bauer and E. Trinka, “Nonconvulsive status epilepticus and coma,” Epilepsia, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 177–190, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. Friedman, J. Claassen, and L. J. Hirsch, “Continuous electroencephalogram monitoring in the intensive care unit,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 109, no. 2, pp. 506–523, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. N. S. Abend, D. J. Dlugos, C. D. Hahn, L. J. Hirsch, and S. T. Herman, “Use of EEG monitoring and management of non-convulsive seizures in critically Ill patients: a survey of neurologists,” Neurocritical Care, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 382–389, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. L. Scheuer, “Continuous EEG monitoring in the intensive care unit,” Epilepsia, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 114–127, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Claassen, L. J. Hirsch, R. G. Emerson, and S. A. Mayer, “Treatment of refractory status epilepticus with pentobarbital, propofol, or midazolam: a systematic review,” Epilepsia, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 146–153, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. H. Lowenstein, “The management of refractory status epilepticus: an update,” Epilepsia, vol. 47, supplement 1, pp. 35–40, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Holtkamp, F. Masuhr, L. Harms, K. M. Einhäupl, H. Meierkord, and K. Buchheim, “The management of refractory generalised convulsive and complex partial status epilepticus in three European countries: a survey among epileptologists and critical care neurologists,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 74, no. 8, pp. 1095–1099, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. Kälviäinen, K. Eriksson, and I. Parviainen, “Refractory generalised convulsive status epilepticus: a guide to treatment,” CNS Drugs, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 759–768, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. R. C. Kelso and H. R. Cock, “Status epilepticus,” Practical Neurology, vol. 5, pp. 322–333, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  20. H. Meierkord, P. Boon, B. Engelsen et al., “EFNS guideline on the management of status epilepticus in adults,” European Journal of Neurology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 348–355, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. G. Jordan and L. J. Hirsch, “In nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), treat to burst-suppression: pro and Con,” Epilepsia, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 41–45, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. O. Rossetti, M. D. Reichhart, M.-D. Schaller, P.-A. Despland, and J. Bogousslavsky, “Propofol treatment of refractory status epilepticus: a study of 31 episodes,” Epilepsia, vol. 45, no. 7, pp. 757–763, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. A. Mayer, J. Claassen, J. Lokin, F. Mendelsohn, L. J. Dennis, and B.-F. Fitzsimmons, “Refractory status epilepticus: frequency, risk factors, and impact on outcome,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 205–210, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. O. Rossetti, G. Logroscino, and E. B. Bromfield, “Refractory status epilepticus: effect of treatment aggressiveness on prognosis,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 62, no. 11, pp. 1698–1702, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. F. W. Drislane, M. R. Lopez, A. S. Blum, and D. L. Schomer, “Detection and treatment of refractory status epilepticus in the intensive care unit,” Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 181–186, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. N. S. Abend and D. J. Dlugos, “Treatment of refractory status epilepticus: literature review and a proposed protocol,” Pediatric Neurology, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 377–390, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. N. Varelas, “How I treat status epilepticus in the Neuro-ICU,” Neurocritical Care, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 153–157, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Novy, G. Logroscino, and A. O. Rossetti, “Refractory status epilepticus: a prospective observational study,” Epilepsia, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 251–256, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Tripathi, D. Vibha, N. Choudhary et al., “Management of refractory status epilepticus at a tertiary care centre in a developing country,” Seizure, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 109–111, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Sinha, D. K. Prashantha, K. Thennarasu, G. S. Umamaheshwara Rao, and P. Satishchandra, “Refractory status epilepticus: a developing country perspective,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 290, no. 1-2, pp. 60–65, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. B. Young, K. G. Jordan, and G. S. Doig, “An assessment of nonconvulsive seizures in the intensive care unit using continuous EEG monitoring: an investigation of variables associated with mortality,” Neurology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 83–89, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. D. J. Chong and L. J. Hirsch, “Which EEG patterns warrant treatment in the critically ill? Reviewing the evidence for treatment of periodic epileptiform discharges and related patterns,” Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 79–91, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. E. F. M. Wijdicks, “Clinical scales for comatose patients: the Glasgow Coma Scale in historical context and the new FOUR score,” Reviews in Neurological Diseases, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 109–117, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. L. Banks and C. A. Marotta, “Outcomes validity and reliability of the modified rankin scale: implications for stroke clinical trials—a literature review and synthesis,” Stroke, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 1091–1096, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. W. A. Knaus, E. A. Draper, D. P. Wagner, and J. E. Zimmerman, “APACHE II: a severity of disease classification system,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 818–829, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. O. Rossetti, G. Logroscino, T. A. Milligan, C. Michaelides, C. Ruffieux, and E. B. Bromfield, “Status Epilepticus Severity Score (STESS): a tool to orient early treatment strategy,” Journal of Neurology, vol. 255, no. 10, pp. 1561–1566, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. N. C. Patel, I. R. Landan, J. Levin, J. Szaflarski, and A. N. Wilner, “The use of levetiracetam in refractory status epilepticus,” Seizure, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 137–141, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. G. Möddel, S. Bunten, C. Dobis et al., “Intravenous levetiracetam: a new treatment alternative for refractory status epilepticus,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 689–692, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. Knake, J. Gruener, K. Hattemer et al., “Intravenous levetiracetam in the treatment of benzodiazepine refractory status epilepticus,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 79, no. 5, pp. 588–589, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. R. Towne, L. K. Garnett, E. J. Waterhouse, L. D. Morton, and R. J. DeLorenzo, “The use of topiramate in refractory status epilepticus,” Neurology, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 332–334, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. K. Bensalem and T. A. Fakhoury, “Topiramate and status epilepticus: report of three cases,” Epilepsy and Behavior, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 757–760, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. B. Soler, J. Godoy, and P. Mellado, “Treatment of refractory status epilepticus with topiramate. Report of three cases,” Revista Medica de Chile, vol. 137, no. 7, pp. 936–939, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. Z. Koubeissi, S. Amina, I. Pita, G. K. Bergey, and M. A. Werz, “Tolerability and efficacy of oral loading of levetiracetam,” Neurology, vol. 70, no. 22, pp. 2166–2170, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. F. W. Drislane, A. S. Blum, M. R. Lopez, S. Gautam, and D. L. Schomer, “Duration of refractory status epilepticus and outcome: loss of prognostic utility after several hours,” Epilepsia, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 1566–1571, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. D. Cooper, J. W. Britton, and A. A. Rabinstein, “Functional and cognitive outcome in prolonged refractory status epilepticus,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 66, no. 12, pp. 1505–1509, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus