Table of Contents
Journal of Ceramics
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 967264, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/967264
Research Article

A Comprehensive Study on Gamma-Ray Exposure Build-Up Factors and Fast Neutron Removal Cross Sections of Fly-Ash Bricks

1Department of Physics, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580003, India
2Health Physics Section, Kaiga Atomic Power Station-3&4, NPCIL, Karwar 581400, India

Received 31 March 2013; Accepted 17 June 2013

Academic Editor: Shaomin Liu

Copyright © 2013 Vishwanath P. Singh and N. M. Badiger. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. M. Kulwinder, K. Baljit, S. S. Gurdeep, and K. Ajay, “Investigations of some building materials for γ-rays shielding effectiveness,” Radiation Physics and Chemistry, vol. 87, pp. 16–25, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. G. R. White, “The penetration and diffusion of Co60 gamma-rays in water using spherical geometry,” Physical Review, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 154–156, 1950. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. U. Fano, “Gamma-ray attenuation—part II: analysis of penetration,” Nucleonics, vol. 11, pp. 55–61, 1953. View at Google Scholar
  4. Y. Harima, “An historical review and current status of buildup factor calculations and applications,” Radiation Physics and Chemistry, vol. 41, no. 4-5, pp. 631–672, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K. Takeuchi and S. Tanaka, “PALLAS-ID (VII). A code for direct integration of transport equation in one-dimensional plane and spherical geometries,” Tech. Rep. 84, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  6. G. L. Simmons, “An adjoint gamma-ray moments computer code, ADJMOM-I,” NBS Technical Note 748, National Bureau of Standards, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  7. A. B. Chilton, C. M. Eisenhauer, and G. L. Simmons, “Photon point source buildup factors for air, water and iron,” Nuclear Science and Engineering, vol. 73, pp. 97–107, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  8. D. V. Gopinath and K. Samthanam, “Radiation transport in one dimensional finite system—part I: development in anisotropic source flux technique,” Nuclear Science and Engineering, vol. 43, pp. 186–196, 1971. View at Google Scholar
  9. W. R. Nelson, H. Hirayama, and D. W. O. Rogers, EGS4 Code System, SLAC-265, Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre, Stanford, Calif, USA, 1985.
  10. ANSI/ANS-6.4.3, “Gamma ray attenuation coefficient and buildup factors for engineering materials,” 1991.
  11. A. Shimizu, “Calculation of gamma-ray buildup factors up to depths of 100 mfp by the method of invariant embedding, (I): analysis of accuracy and comparison with other data,” Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 477–486, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Shimizu, T. Onda, and Y. Sakamoto, “Calculation of gamma-ray buildup factors up to depths of 100 mfp by the method of invariant embedding, (III) generation of an improved data set,” Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 413–424, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. Y. Harima, Y. Sakamoto, S. Tanaka, and M. Kawai, “Validity of the geometric-progression formula in approximating gamma-ray buildup factors,” Nuclear Science and Engineering, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 24–35, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Singh, S. S. Ghumman, C. Singh, K. S. Thind, and G. S. Mudahar, “Buildup of gamma ray photons in flyash concretes: a study,” Annals of Nuclear Energy, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 681–684, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. G. S. Brar, K. Singh, M. Singh, and G. S. Mudahar, “Energy absorption buildup factor studies in water, air and concrete up to 100 mfp using G-P fitting formula,” Radiation Physics and Chemistry, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 623–627, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. V. P. Singh and N. M. Badiger, “Comprehensive study of energy absorption and exposure buildup factor for concrete shielding in photon energy range 0.015–15 MeV upto 40 mfp penetration depth: dependency of density, chemical element, photon energy,” International Journal of Nuclear Energy Science and Technology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 75–99, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. V. P. Singh and N. M. Badiger, “Photon energy absorption buildup factor of gaseous mixtures used in radiation detectors,” Radioprotection, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 63–78, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. M. Kurudirek, B. Doĝan, M. Ingeç, N. Ekinci, and Y. Özdemir, “Gamma-ray energy absorption and exposure buildup factor studies in some human tissues with endometriosis,” Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 381–388, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. Sandeep and S. S. Gurdeep, “A comprehensive study on energy absorption and exposure buildup factors for some soils and ceramic materials,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 24–30, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  20. S. Tejbir, K. Gurpreet, and S. S. Parjit, “Study of gamma ray exposure buildup factor for some ceramics with photon energy, penetration depth and chemical composition,” Journal of Ceramics, vol. 2013, Article ID 721606, 6 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. E. Yilmaz, H. Baltas, E. Kiris, I. Ustabas, U. Cevik, and A. M. El-Khayatt, “Gamma ray and neutron shielding properties of some concrete materials,” Annals of Nuclear Energy, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 2204–2212, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Building Materials in India: 50 Years: A Commemorative Volume, 1998.
  23. Eco-Friendly building materials and technologies, Ecohousing assessment criteria-Version II, Annexure-4, August 2009.
  24. P. David and B. Dalibor, “Barite mortar with fluid fly ash as shielding material,” Intersections, vol. 6, no. 2, article 3, pp. 28–34, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  25. S. Singh, A. Kumar, D. Singh, K. S. Thind, and G. S. Mudahar, “Barium-borate-flyash glasses: as radiation shielding materials,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, vol. 266, no. 1, pp. 140–146, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. T. Suparat, K. Jakrapong, L. Pichet, and C. Weerapong, “Development of BaO:B2O3: flyash glass system for gamma-rays shielding materials,” Progress in Nuclear Science and Technology, vol. 1, pp. 110–113, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  27. S. S. Amritphale, A. Anshul, N. Chandra, and N. Ramakrishnan, “Development of celsian ceramics from fly ash useful for X-ray radiation-shielding application,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 27, no. 16, pp. 4639–4647, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. P. Singh, A. S. Kumar, A. Chandra, and S. K. Dhawan, “Conduction mechanism in Polyaniline-flyash composite material for shielding against electromagnetic radiation in X-band Ku band,” AIP Advances, vol. 1, no. 2, Article ID 022147, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. L. Gerward, N. Guilbert, K. B. Jensen, and H. Levring, “X-ray absorption in matter. Reengineering XCOM,” Radiation Physics and Chemistry, vol. 60, no. 1-2, pp. 23–24, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. L. Gerward, N. Guilbert, K. B. Jensen, and H. Levring, “WinXCom—a program for calculating X-ray attenuation coefficients,” Radiation Physics and Chemistry, vol. 71, no. 3-4, pp. 653–654, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Y. Harima, “An approximation of gamma-ray buildup factors by modified geometrical progression,” Nuclear Science and Engineering, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 299–309, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. J. Maron, Numerical Analysis: A Practical Approach, Macmillan, New York, NY, USA, 2007.
  33. G. Samuel and S. Alexander, Nuclear Reactor Engineering, vol. 1, Chapman and Hall, 4th edition, 2004.
  34. M. F. Kaplan, Concrete Radiation Shielding, Longman Scientific and Technology, Essex, UK, 1989.
  35. A. B. Chilten, J. K. Shultis, and R. E. Faw, Principle of Radiation Shielding, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, 1984.
  36. D. Luis, Update to ANSI/ANS-6.4.3-1991 for Low-Z Materials and Compound Materials and Review of Particle Transport Theory, UNLV, Las Vegas, Nev, USA, 2009.