Table of Contents
Journal of Cancer Research
Volume 2014, Article ID 149865, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/149865
Research Article

Association between Latitude and Breast Cancer Incidence in Mainland Australian Women

1The Children’s Hospital at Westmead and The University of Sydney, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia
2SWAHS Research Network and The University of Sydney, P.O. Box 143, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia
3Macquarie University Cancer Institute (MCI) and Australian School of Advanced Medicine (ASAM), Macquarie University, 2 Technology Place, NSW 2109, Australia

Received 22 August 2014; Revised 2 November 2014; Accepted 10 November 2014; Published 9 December 2014

Academic Editor: Ruth O’Regan

Copyright © 2014 Kellie Bilinski et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. W. J. Blot, J. F. Fraumeni Jr., and B. J. Stone, “Geographic patterns of breast cancer in the United States,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 1407–1411, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. R. Sturgeon, C. Schairer, M. Gall, M. McAdams, L. A. Brinton, and R. N. Hoover, “Geographic variation in mortality from breast cancer among white women in the United States,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 87, no. 24, pp. 1846–1853, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. B. Mohr, C. F. Garland, E. D. Gorham, W. B. Grant, and F. C. Garland, “Ultraviolet B irradiance and incidence rates of bladder cancer in 174 countries,” The American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 296–302, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. F. C. Garland, C. F. Garland, E. D. Gorham, and J. F. Young, “Geographic variation in breast cancer mortality in the United States: a hypothesis involving exposure to solar radiation,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 614–622, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. W. B. Grant and C. F. Garland, “The association of solar ultraviolet B (UVB) with reducing risk of cancer: multifactorial ecologic analysis of geographic variation in age-adjusted cancer mortality rates,” Anticancer Research, vol. 26, no. 4A, pp. 2687–2699, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. F. P. Boscoe and M. J. Schymura, “Solar ultraviolet-B exposure and cancer incidence and mortality in the United States, 1993–2002,” BMC Cancer, vol. 6, article 264, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. W. Chen, M. Clements, B. Rahman, S. Zhang, Y. Qiao, and B. K. Armstrong, “Relationship between cancer mortality/incidence and ambient ultraviolet B irradiance in China,” Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1701–1709, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. M. Freedman, M. Dosemeci, and K. McGlynn, “Sunlight and mortality from breast, ovarian, colon, prostate, and non-melanoma skin cancer: a composite death certificate based case-control study,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 257–262, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. B. Mohr, C. F. Garland, E. D. Gorham, W. B. Grant, and F. C. Garland, “Relationship between low ultraviolet B irradiance and higher breast cancer risk in 107 countries,” Breast Journal, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 255–260, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. F. Holick, “Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 1678S–1688S, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. R. Webb, L. Kline, and M. F. Holick, “Influence of season and latitude on the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3: exposure to winter sunlight in Boston and Edmonton will not promote vitamin D3 synthesis in human skin,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 373–378, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. M. Daly, C. Gagnon, Z. X. Lu et al., “Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its determinants in Australian adults aged 25 years and older: a national, population-based study,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 26–35, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Boyages and K. Bilinski, “Seasonal reduction in vitamin D level persists into spring in NSW Australia: implications for monitoring and replacement therapy,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 515–523, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Peller and C. S. Stephenson, “Skin irritation and cancer in the United States Navy,” The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol. 194, pp. 326–333, 1937. View at Google Scholar
  15. F. L. Apperly, “The relation of solar radiation to cancer mortality in North America,” Cancer Research, vol. 1, pp. 191–195, 1941. View at Google Scholar
  16. C. F. Garland and F. C. Garland, “Do sunlight and vitamin D reduce the likelihood of colon cancer?” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 227–231, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. R. Buras, L. M. Schumaker, F. Davoodi et al., “Vitamin D receptors in breast cancer cells,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 31, no. 2-3, pp. 191–202, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. W. Colston and C. M. Hansen, “Mechanisms implicated in the growth regulatory effects of vitamin D in breast cancer,” Endocrine-Related Cancer, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 45–59, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. W. Colston, R. C. Coombes, and U. Berger, “Possible role for vitamin D in controlling breast cancer cell proliferation,” The Lancet, vol. 1, no. 8631, pp. 188–191, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. L. Ooi, Y. Zheng, K. Stalgis-Bilinski, and C. R. Dunstan, “The bone remodeling environment is a factor in breast cancer bone metastasis,” Bone, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 66–70, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. E. R. Bertone-Johnson, W. Y. Chen, M. F. Holick et al., “Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and risk of breast cancer,” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1991–1997, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. F. Garland, E. D. Gorham, S. B. Mohr, and F. C. Garland, “Vitamin D for cancer prevention: global perspective,” Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 468–483, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. K. Bilinski and J. Boyages, “Association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and breast cancer risk in an Australian population: an observational case-control study,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 137, no. 2, pp. 599–607, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. L. Neuhouser, J. E. Manson, A. Millen et al., “The influence of health and lifestyle characteristics on the relation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with risk of colorectal and breast cancer in postmenopausal women,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 175, no. 7, pp. 673–684, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. E. Amir, R. S. Cecchini, P. A. Ganz et al., “25-Hydroxy vitamin-D, obesity, and associated variables as predictors of breast cancer risk and tamoxifen benefit in NSABP-P1,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 133, no. 3, pp. 1077–1088, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. B. K. Armstrong and A. Kricker, “Skin cancer,” Dermatologic Clinics, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 583–594, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  27. G. P. Yu, D. N. Hu, and S. A. McCormick, “Latitude and incidence of ocular melanoma,” Photochemistry and Photobiology, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 1621–1626, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. E. Giovannucci, “The epidemiology of vitamin D and cancer incidence and mortality: a review (United States),” Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 83–95, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. D. J. Holman, I. R. James, P. H. Gattey, and B. K. Armstrong, “An analysis of trends in mortality from malignant melanoma of the skin in Australia,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 703–709, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. P. Staples, M. Elwood, R. C. Burton, J. L. Williams, R. Marks, and G. G. Giles, “Non-melanoma skin cancer in Australia: the 2002 national survey and trends since 1985,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 184, no. 1, pp. 6–10, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. B. K. Armstrong and A. Kricker, “The epidemiology of UV induced skin cancer,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, vol. 63, no. 1–3, pp. 8–18, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), CDATA: Australian Population by Age and Sex, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006, https://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/CDATAOnline.
  33. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), Census of Population and Housing: Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), Australian Bureau of Statistics, Melbourne, Australia, 2006.
  34. S. Boyages and K. Bilinski, “Seasonal reduction in vitamin D level persists into spring in NSW Australia: implications for monitoring and replacement therapy,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 515–523, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. B. Pink, Information Paper: An Introduction to Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, Australia, 2006.
  36. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) Remoteness Area Correspondences, 2006, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2008.
  37. D. H. Miller, S. R. Hammond, J. G. McLeod, G. Purdie, and D. C. Skegg, “Multiple sclerosis in Australia and New Zealand: are the determinants genetic or environmental?” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, vol. 53, no. 10, pp. 903–905, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  38. J. A. Staples, A. L. Ponsonby, L. L. Lim, and A. J. McMichael, “Ecologic analysis of some immune-related disorders, including type 1 diabetes, in Australia: latitude, regional ultraviolet radiation, and disease prevalence,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 111, no. 4, pp. 518–523, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  39. K. L. Stalgis-Bilinski, J. Boyages, E. L. Salisbury, C. R. Dunstan, S. I. Henderson, and P. L. Talbot, “Burning daylight: balancing vitamin D requirements with sensible sun exposure,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 194, no. 7, pp. 345–348, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. G. Kimlin, “Geographic location and vitamin D synthesis,” Molecular Aspects of Medicine, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 453–461, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. W. B. Grant, “An ecologic study of dietary and solar ultraviolet-B links to breast carcinoma mortality rates,” Cancer, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 272–281, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. E. D. Gorham, F. C. Garland, and C. F. Garland, “Sunlight and breast cancer incidence in the USSR,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 820–824, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare & Cancer Australia, Breast Cancer in Australia: An Overview, Cancer Series no. 71, Cat. no. CAN 67, AIHW, Canberra, Australia, 2012.
  44. L. H. Kushi, M. L. Kwan, M. M. Lee, and C. B. Ambrosone, “Lifestyle factors and survival in women with breast cancer,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 137, no. 1, pp. 236S–242S, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. R. Chlebowski, “Lifestyle change including dietary fat reduction and breast cancer outcome,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 137, no. 1, pp. 233S–235S, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. C. L. Rock and W. Demark-Wahnefried, “Can lifestyle modification increase survival in women diagnosed with breast cancer?” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 132, supplement 11, pp. 3504S–3507S, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. D. R. English, H. Farrugia, V. Thursfield, P. Chang, and G. G. Giles, Cancer Survival Victoria 2007: Estimates of Survival in 2004 (and Comparisons with Earlier Periods), The Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia, 2007.
  48. M. F. Holick, “High prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy and implications for health,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 353–373, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. S. Gandini, F. Sera, M. S. Cattaruzza et al., “Meta-analysis of risk factors for cutaneous melanoma: II. Sun exposure,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 45–60, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. Moan, A. C. Porojnicu, and A. Dahlback, “Ultraviolet radiation and malignant melanoma,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 624, pp. 104–116, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus