Table of Contents
Journal of Criminology
Volume 2013, Article ID 137583, 13 pages
Research Article

Demographic, Psychological, and School Environment Correlates of Bullying Victimization and School Hassles in Rural Youth

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Social Work, CB No. 3550, 325 Pittsboro Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3550, USA

Received 25 February 2013; Revised 26 April 2013; Accepted 20 May 2013

Academic Editor: John McCluskey

Copyright © 2013 Paul R. Smokowski et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Little is known about bullying in rural areas. The participants in this study included 3,610 racially diverse youth (average age = 12.8) from 28 rural schools who completed the School Success Profile-Plus. Binary logistic regression models were created to predict bullying victimization in the past 12 months, and ordered logistic regression was used to predict school hassles in the past 12 months. Overall, 22.71% of the sample experienced bullying victimization and school victimization rates ranged from 11% to 38%. Risk factors for bullying victimization included younger students and students experiencing depression and anxiety. Being female, Hispanic/Latino or African American, was associated with lower bullying victimization. Thirty-nine percent of the sample reported a high level of school hassles. Younger students and students with higher levels of anxiety and depression were at increased risk for school hassles. Students from larger schools reported high levels of school hassles, while students from schools with more teachers with advanced degrees reported fewer school hassles.