Journal of Criminology / 2013 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

Predicting School Bullying Victimization: Focusing on Individual and School Environmental/Security Factors

Table 3

The results from multinomial logistic regression models with inverse probability weighted estimation.

VariablesPhysical1Emotional1P & E1Physical1Emotional1P & E1
SE SE SE SE SE SE

School characteristics
 Security guards .68*.12.80**.06.67**.06.70.13.80**.06.74**.07
 Locked doors .81.13.88.06.88.07.82.13.88.06.86.07
 Security cameras1.38.26.96.071.06.091.49*.29.94.07.99.09
 Fairness of school rules .89.06.90**.03.83**.03.91.07.91**.03.86**.03
 Awareness of school rules.73*.111.12.07.89.07.75.121.10.08.89.07
 Awareness of punishments1.04.15.88*.06.92.071.04.16.87*.06.89.07
 Gangs at school 1.50*.281.34**.111.74**.161.40.271.38**.111.69**.17
 Guns at school 1.30.391.56**.222.11**.301.10.351.48**.211.88**.28
 Students misbehaving1.50**.141.64**.072.08**.111.47**.141.62**.071.97**.11
 Teachers’ punishment1.17.121.13**.051.38**.071.14.121.13**.051.38**.08
 Type of school (1: private).64.231.11.13.95.15.69.251.08.13.95.16
 School location (1: urban).95.17.93.07.91.08.96.18.97.08.99.10
Individual/demographic
 Skipping classes 1.55.411.47**.201.23.19
 Fighting last 6 months 7.06**1.701.93**.347.57**1.13
 Teacher-student relationship.99.081.02.04.99.05
 Extra-curricular activities 1.49*.281.29**.111.25*.12
 GPA .89.08.92.04.86**.04
 Age1.05.04.99.02.99.02
 Race (1: Nonwhite).69.15.85.08.68**.08
 Ethnicity (1: hispanic).86.18.86.09.58**.08
 Sex (1: males)1.55*.26.71**.051.05.09
 Year (1: 2007).82.131.07.071.29**.11

Log Pseudo likelihood−23,755.40−22,627.13
Wald chi-squared (df)774.51 (36)**1,007.08 (66)**
Pseudo .08.11
6,9886,891

P < .01, P < .05, SE: robust standard error, : relative risk ratio, and : number of observations after listwise deletion of incomplete cases.
None is the reference category.

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