Table 2: Application of ascorbic acid derivatives.


 Quasidrug principal ingredient in skin care products[3]
 Food additive[3]
 Medical additive in commercial cosmetics[3]
 Skin antioxidant[10]
 Prevention of sinusoidal endothelial cell apotosis in preserved graft[10]
 High stability against thermal and oxidative degradation[9]
 Rapid conversion to ascorbic acid by α-glucosidase in the blood[10]
 Solubilization of clarithromycin (CAM)[11]
 Nanoparticle formation of CAM[11]
 Stabilization of CAM nanosuspension[11]

 Solubilization of phenacetin, danthron, anthralin, and retinoic acid[12]
 Solubilization capacity of anthralin: ASC-8 < −10 < −12 < −14 < −16[12]

 Cosmetic ingredients[5]
 Solubilization of drug[5]
 Decrease viscosity of gel formulation[5]
 Skin moisturizing and penetration effect of ASC-P entrapped in SLN, NLC, and NE incorporated into hydrogel[21]
 Antioxidant[1720, 23]
 Stabilization of ASC-P by encapsulation in PLA nanoparticles[22]
 Skin permeation enhancer[24]
 Cytotoxicity against cancer cell[25, 26]
 ASC-P vesicles (Aspasomes)[28]

 Cosmetic ingredients *
 Cytotoxicity against cancer cell[27]

 Cosmetic ingredients *
 Antioxidant (skin whitening action)[29]
 Extended the stability of adhesive transdermal pharmaceuticals[29]
 Nanoparticle formation with DSPE-PEG[31]
 Drug encapsulation in ASC-DP/DSPE-PEG[31]

*Final report on the safety assessment of ascorbyl palmitate, ascorbyl dipalmitate, ascorbyl stearate, erythorbic acid, and sodium erythorbate.
Int. J. Toxicol.,18,1-26 (1999).