Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Drug Delivery
Volume 2013, Article ID 165981, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/165981
Review Article

Lipid-Based Nanoparticles in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

1Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, King's College London, Franklin-Wilkins Building, Waterloo Campus, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH, UK
2GlobalAcorn Ltd., London, UK

Received 7 December 2012; Revised 7 May 2013; Accepted 24 May 2013

Academic Editor: Vasso Apostolopoulos

Copyright © 2013 Andrew D. Miller. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Ferrari, “Cancer nanotechnology: opportunities and challenges,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 161–171, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. R. Srinivas, P. Barker, and S. Srivastava, “Nanotechnology in early detection of cancer,” Laboratory Investigation, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 657–662, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Nie, Y. Xing, G. J. Kim, and J. W. Simons, “Nanotechnology applications in cancer,” Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, vol. 9, pp. 257–288, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. D. Wang, D. M. Shin, J. W. Simons, and S. Nie, “Nanotechnology for targeted cancer therapy,” Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 833–837, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. D. Miller, “Towards safe nanoparticle technologies for nucleic acid therapeutics,” Tumori, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 234–245, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. Kostarelos and A. D. Miller, “Synthetic, self-assembly ABCD nanoparticles; a structural paradigm for viable synthetic non-viral vectors,” Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 970–994, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Fletcher, A. Ahmad, E. Perouzel, A. Heron, A. D. Miller, and M. R. Jorgensen, “In vivo studies of dialkynoyl analogues of DOTAP demonstrate improved gene transfer efficiency of cationic liposomes in mouse lung,” Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 349–357, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. Fletcher, A. Ahmad, E. Perouzel, M. R. Jorgensen, and A. D. Miller, “A dialkynoyl analogue of DOPE improves gene transfer of lower-charged, cationic lipoplexes,” Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 196–199, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. Fletcher, A. Ahmad, W. S. Price, M. R. Jorgensen, and A. D. Miller, “Biophysical properties of CDAN/DOPE-analogue lipoplexes account for enhanced gene delivery,” ChemBioChem, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 455–463, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. D. Miller, “The problem with cationic liposome/micelle-based non-viral vector systems for gene therapy,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 10, no. 14, pp. 1195–1211, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. D. Miller, “Gene therapy needs robust synthetic nonviral platform technologies,” ChemBioChem, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 53–54, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. D. Miller, “Nonviral liposomes,” in Suicide Gene Therapy, C. J. Springer, Ed., Methods in Molecular Medicine, pp. 107–137, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, USA, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  13. M. Oliver, M. R. Jorgensen, and A. D. Miller, “The facile solid-phase synthesis of cholesterol-based polyamine lipids,” Tetrahedron Letters, vol. 45, no. 15, pp. 3105–3107, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Spagnou, A. D. Miller, and M. Keller, “Lipidic carriers of siRNA: differences in the formulation, cellular uptake, and delivery with plasmid DNA,” Biochemistry, vol. 43, no. 42, pp. 13348–13356, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. Tagawa, M. Manvell, N. Brown et al., “Characterisation of LMD virus-like nanoparticles self-assembled from cationic liposomes, adenovirus core peptide μ (mu) and plasmid DNA,” Gene Therapy, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 564–576, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. J. Bharali, M. Khalil, M. Gurbuz, T. M. Simone, and S. A. Mousa, “Nanoparticles and cancer therapy: a concise review with emphasis on dendrimers,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. Cho, X. Wang, S. Nie, Z. G. Chen, and D. M. Shin, “Therapeutic nanoparticles for drug delivery in cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1310–1316, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. E. Davis, Z. G. Chen, and D. M. Shin, “Nanoparticle therapeutics: an emerging treatment modality for cancer,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 771–782, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. O. C. Farokhzad and R. Langer, “Impact of nanotechnology on drug delivery,” ACS Nano, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 16–20, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. Lammers, W. E. Hennink, and G. Storm, “Tumour-targeted nanomedicines: principles and practice,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 392–397, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. Peer, J. M. Karp, S. Hong, O. C. Farokhzad, R. Margalit, and R. Langer, “Nanocarriers as an emerging platform for cancer therapy,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 751–760, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. Tanaka, P. Decuzzi, M. Cristofanilli et al., “Nanotechnology for breast cancer therapy,” Biomedical Microdevices, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 49–63, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. B.-B. C. Youan, “Impact of nanoscience and nanotechnology on controlled drug delivery,” Nanomedicine, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 401–406, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. D. Byrne, T. Betancourt, and L. Brannon-Peppas, “Active targeting schemes for nanoparticle systems in cancer therapeutics,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 60, no. 15, pp. 1615–1626, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. B. S. Zolnik and N. Sadrieh, “Regulatory perspective on the importance of ADME assessment of nanoscale material containing drugs,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 422–427, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Y. Matsumura and H. Maeda, “A new concept for macromolecular therapeutics in cancer chemotherapy: mechanism of tumoritropic accumulation of proteins and the antitumor agent smancs,” Cancer Research, vol. 46, no. 12, pp. 6387–6392, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Thanou and R. Duncan, “Polymer-protein and polymer-drug conjugates in cancer therapy,” Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 701–709, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. B. E. Cohen and A. D. Bangham, “Diffusion of small non-electrolytes across liposome membranes,” Nature, vol. 236, no. 5343, pp. 173–174, 1972. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. M. Johnson and A. D. Bangham, “Potassium permeability of single compartment liposomes with and without valinomycin,” Biomembranes, vol. 193, no. 1, pp. 82–91, 1969. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. D. Lasic, Ed., Medical Applications of Liposomes, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1998.
  31. T. M. Allen and P. R. Cullis, “Drug delivery systems: entering the mainstream,” Science, vol. 303, no. 5665, pp. 1818–1822, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. V. P. Torchilin, “Recent advances with liposomes as pharmaceutical carriers,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 145–160, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. E. A. Forssen and Z. A. Tokes, “Improved therapeutic benefits of doxorubicin by entrapment in anionic liposomes,” Cancer Research, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 546–550, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. Treat, A. Greenspan, D. Forst et al., “Antitumor activity of liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin in advanced breast cancer: phase II study,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 82, no. 21, pp. 1706–1710, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. N. J. Robert, C. L. Vogel, I. C. Henderson et al., “The role of the liposomal anthracyclines and other systemic therapies in the management of advanced breast cancer,” Seminars in Oncology, vol. 31, supplement 13, pp. 106–146, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. M. Straubinger, N. G. Lopez, R. J. Debs, K. Hong, and D. Papahadjopoulos, “Liposome-based therapy of human ovarian cancer: parameters determining potency of negatively charged and antibody-targeted liposomes,” Cancer Research, vol. 48, no. 18, pp. 5237–5245, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. T. M. Allen and F. J. Martin, “Advantages of liposomal delivery systems for anthracyclines,” Seminars in Oncology, vol. 31, supplement 13, pp. 5–15, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Gabizon and F. Martin, “Polyethylene glycol-coated (pegylated) liposomal doxorubicin. Rationale for use in solid tumours,” Drugs, vol. 54, supplement 4, pp. 15–21, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. Gabizon, H. Shmeeda, and Y. Barenholz, “Pharmacokinetics of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin: review of animal and human studies,” Clinical Pharmacokinetics, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 419–436, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. D. Papahadjopoulos, T. M. Allen, A. Gabizon et al., “Sterically stabilized liposomes: improvements in pharmacokinetics and antitumor therapeutic efficacy,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 88, no. 24, pp. 11460–11464, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. C. Woodle and D. D. Lasic, “Sterically stabilized liposomes,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1113, no. 2, pp. 171–199, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. Aissaoui, M. Chami, M. Hussein, and A. D. Miller, “Efficient topical delivery of plasmid DNA to lung in vivo mediated by putative triggered, PEGylated pDNA nanoparticles,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 154, no. 3, pp. 275–284, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. Carmona, M. R. Jorgensen, S. Kolli et al., “Controlling HBV replication in vivo by intravenous administration of triggered PEGylated siRNA-nanoparticles,” Molecular Pharmaceutics, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 706–717, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. C. R. Drake, A. Aissaoui, O. Argyros et al., “Bioresponsive small molecule polyamines as noncytotoxic alternative to polyethylenimine,” Molecular Pharmaceutics, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 2040–2055, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. G. D. Kenny, N. Kamaly, T. L. Kalber et al., “Novel multifunctional nanoparticle mediates siRNA tumour delivery, visualisation and therapeutic tumour reduction in vivo,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 149, no. 2, pp. 111–116, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. Kolli, S.-P. Wong, R. P. Harbottle, B. Johnson, M. Thanou, and A. D. Miller, “pH-Triggered nanoparticle mediated delivery of siRNA to liver cells in vitro and in vivo,” Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 24, pp. 314–332, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  47. M. Mével, N. Kamaly, S. Carmona et al., “DODAG; a versatile new cationic lipid that mediates efficient delivery of pDNA and siRNA,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 143, no. 2, pp. 222–232, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. Andreu, N. Fairweather, and A. D. Miller, “Clostridium neurotoxin fragments as potential targeting moieties for liposomal gene delivery to the CNS,” ChemBioChem, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 219–231, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. Chen, M. R. Jorgensen, M. Thanou, and A. D. Miller, “Post-coupling strategy enables true receptor-targeted nanoparticles,” Journal of RNAi and Gene Silencing, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 449–455, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. Wang, D. W. P. M. Löwik, A. D. Miller, and M. Thanou, “Targeting the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor with synthetic self-assembly nanoparticles,” Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 32–40, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. Erdogan, “Liposomal nanocarriers for tumor imaging,” Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 141–150, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. W. J. M. Mulder, G. J. Strijkers, G. A. F. van Tilborg, A. W. Griffioen, and K. Nicolay, “Lipid-based nanoparticles for contrast-enhanced MRI and molecular imaging,” NMR in Biomedicine, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 142–164, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. M. Devoisselle, J. Vion-Dury, J. P. Galons et al., “Entrapment of Gadolinium-DTPA in liposomes. Characterization of vesicles by P-31 NMR spectroscopy,” Investigative Radiology, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 719–724, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. E. Unger, T. Fritz, D. K. S. de Kang Shen, and G. Wu, “Manganese-based liposomes: comparative approaches,” Investigative Radiology, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 933–938, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. D. Kozlowska, P. Foran, P. MacMahon, M. J. Shelly, S. Eustace, and R. O'Kennedy, “Molecular and magnetic resonance imaging: the value of immunoliposomes,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 61, no. 15, pp. 1402–1411, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. G. W. Kabalka, M. A. Davis, E. Buonocore, K. Hubner, E. Holmberg, and L. Huang, “Gd-labeled liposomes containing amphipathic agents for magnetic resonance imaging,” Investigative Radiology, vol. 25, supplement 1, pp. S63–S64, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. G. A. F. van Tilborg, G. J. Strijkers, E. M. Pouget et al., “Kinetics of avidin-induced clearance of biotinylated bimodal liposomes for improved MR molecular imaging,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 1444–1456, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. N. Kamaly, T. Kalber, G. Kenny, J. Bell, M. Jorgensen, and A. Miller, “A novel bimodal lipidic contrast agent for cellular labelling and tumour MRI,” Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 201–211, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. N. Kamaly, T. Kalber, M. Thanou, J. D. Bell, and A. D. Miller, “Folate receptor targeted bimodal liposomes for tumor magnetic resonance imaging,” Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 648–655, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. N. Kamaly, T. Kalber, A. Ahmad et al., “Bimodal paramagnetic and fluorescent liposomes for cellular and tumor magnetic resonance imaging,” Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 118–129, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. A. J. Almeida and E. Souto, “Solid lipid nanoparticles as a drug delivery system for peptides and proteins,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 478–490, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. R. Cavalli, O. Caputo, M. E. Carlotti, M. Trotta, C. Scarnecchia, and M. R. Gasco, “Sterilization and freeze-drying of drug-free and drug-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 47–54, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. R. H. Muller, W. Mehnert, J.-S. Lucks et al., “Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN)—an alternative colloidal carrier system for controlled drug delivery,” European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 62–69, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. S. Morel, E. Terreno, E. Ugazio, S. Aime, and M. R. Gasco, “NMR relaxometric investigations of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) containing gadolinium(III) complexes,” European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 157–163, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. P. Yingyuad, M. Mével, C. Prata et al., “Enzyme-triggered PEGylated pDNA-nanoparticles for controlled release of pDNA in tumours,” Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 24, pp. 343–362, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  66. G. Kong, G. Anyarambhatla, W. P. Petros et al., “Efficacy of liposomes and hyperthermia in a human tumor xenograft model: importance of triggered drug release,” Cancer Research, vol. 60, no. 24, pp. 6950–6957, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. R. T. P. Poon and N. Borys, “Lyso-thermosensitive liposomal doxorubicin: a novel approach to enhance efficacy of thermal ablation of liver cancer,” Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 333–343, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. D. Needham, G. Anyarambhatla, G. Kong, and M. W. Dewhirst, “A new temperature-sensitive liposome for use with mild hyperthermia: characterization and testing in a human tumor xenograft model,” Cancer Research, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 1197–1201, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. D. Needham and M. W. Dewhirst, “The development and testing of a new temperature-sensitive drug delivery system for the treatment of solid tumors,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 285–305, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. M. B. Thomas, D. Jaffe, M. M. Choti et al., “Hepatocellular carcinoma: consensus recommendations of the National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials Planning Meeting,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 25, pp. 3994–4005, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. B. J. Wood, R. T. Poon, J. K. Locklin et al., “Phase i study of heat-deployed liposomal doxorubicin during radiofrequency ablation for hepatic malignancies,” Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 248–255, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. M. de Smet, S. Langereis, S. van den Bosch, and H. Grüll, “Temperature-sensitive liposomes for doxorubicin delivery under MRI guidance,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 120–127, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. A. H. Negussie, P. S. Yarmolenko, A. Partanen et al., “Formulation and characterisation of magnetic resonance imageable thermally sensitive liposomes for use with magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound,” International Journal of Hyperthermia, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 140–155, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. A. Ranjan, G. C. Jacobs, D. L. Woods et al., “Image-guided drug delivery with magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound and temperature sensitive liposomes in a rabbit Vx2 tumor model,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 158, no. 3, pp. 487–494, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. A. Partanen, P. S. Yarmolenko, A. Viitala et al., “Mild hyperthermia with magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound for applications in drug delivery,” International Journal of Hyperthermia, vol. 28, pp. 320–336, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  76. N. Kamaly and A. D. Miller, “Paramagnetic liposome nanoparticles for cellular and tumour imaging,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 1759–1776, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. N. Kamaly, A. D. Miller, and J. D. Bell, “Chemistry of tumour targeted T1 based MRI contrast agents,” Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 1158–1183, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. R. Bardhan, W. Chen, M. Bartels et al., “Tracking of multimodal therapeutic nanocomplexes targeting breast cancer in vivo,” Nano Letters, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 4920–4928, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. R. Bardhan, S. Lal, A. Joshi, and N. J. Halas, “Theranostic nanoshells: from probe design to imaging and treatment of cancer,” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 936–946, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. J. Chen, G. M. Lanza, and S. A. Wickline, “Quantitative magnetic resonance fluorine imaging: today and tomorrow,” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 431–440, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus