Table 2: Summary of dendritic cell receptors targeted for vaccine development: other receptors.

ReceptorDesignationFunction

3. Type-1 integral membrane proteins
3.1. DEC205CD205Homologous to the mannose receptor.
Ly 75Expressed on DCs and thymic epithelial cells. Targeting DEC205 induces an array of immune responses.

4. Scavenger receptors
4.1. Scavenger receptorExpressed on macrophages. Bind to modified low density lipoproteins (LDL) by oxidation (oxLDL) or acetylation (acLDL). Bind to CD68, macrosialin, mucins, and LOX-1. Targeting of scavenger receptors induces immune responses in mice.
4.1.1. Scavenger receptor class A SR-A1Expressed on macrophages as a trimer.
SR-A2Members include SCARA1 (MSR1), SCARA2 (MARCO), SCARA3, SCARA4 (COLEC12), and SCARA5.
4.1.2. Scavenger receptor class BSR-B1Consists of 2 transmembrane units.
Members include SCARB1, SCARB2, and SCARB3 (CD36).
4.1.3. Scavenger receptor class CSR-B1Consists of a transmembrane region in which the N-terminus is located extracellularly.
4.2. DC-asialoglycoprotein receptor (DC-ASGPR)A lectin-like scavenger receptor. Expressed on monocyte derived DCs (CD14+CD34+), tonsillar interstitial-type DCs, and granulocytes. Targeting DC-ASGPR induces suppressive responses.

5. F4/80 receptorExpression restricted to macrophages. Murine homolog of the epidermal growth factor-like module containing mucin-like hormone receptor-1 protein encoded by the EMR1 gene.
5.1. FIREExpressed on CD8−CD4+ and CD8−CD4− immature DCs, and weakly on monocytes and macrophages. Targeting FIRE stimulates immune responses in mice.

6. DC-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP)Expressed on DCs and activated blood DCs.
Targeting DC-STAMP results in immunosuppressive responses in some studies and in other studies stimulates strong cellular responses.

7. FcRLinks humoral and cellular immune (Fc Receptor) responses, links innate and adaptive immune responses by binding pathogens and immune complexes, and stimulates T cells. Targeting FcR is a novel vaccine strategy for stimulating immune responses.