Table 4: Example of microparticulate inhaled formulation along with the key findings.

DrugMethod of preparationMajor ingredientAssembly, device and capsules, flow rate (L/min)Percentage of FPFReference

Microparticles
BudesonideSDLactohale 300 M : Pharmatose® 150 M (60 : 40)ACI, Rotahaler, #3 HPMC, and 60 for 4 sec34.50[43]
Ciprofloxacinco-SDMannitolMSLI, Aerolizer, and 60 for 4 sec43.5 ± 1.50[44]
CiclosporinSFDTert-butyl alcohol and mannitol (5%)ACI, Jethaler®, #2 HPMC, and 28.3 for 5 sec36.4 ± 1.40[45]
DexamethasoneVibrational SDPCL and sodium deoxycholateACI, Aerolizer, #3 HPMC, and 28.3 for 8.5 sec61.68 ± 1.28[46]
NaringinSDWater-ethanolTSI, Turbospin, #2 gelatin, and 60 for 5 sec44.5 ± 1.54[47]
RifampicinSDChitosan, ascorbic acid, and leucineACI, HPMC, and 60 for 10 sec47.29[48]
RifampicinSDDextran (Dex) and stearylamine grafted dextranACI and 6077.51[49]
RifampicinSDWater : dichloromethane 80 : 20ACI, Spinhaler, and 60 for 4 sec58.00[50]
Shuang-Huang-Lian corrugated particlesSDD-Mannitol, lactose, and L-leucineNGI, Cyclohaler®, #3 gelatin, and 60 for 4 sec36.8 ± 1.90[51]
Terbutaline sulfateSDL-leucine and low molecular wt. chitosanMSLI, Spinhaler, #2 HPMC, and 60 for 2.5 sec75.83 ± 2.59[52]
VoriconazoleSDPolylactideACI and RS01 dry powder inhaler43.56 ± 0.13[53]

Solid lipid microparticles
Salbutamol sulfateSDDPPC, CS, and L-leucineTSI, Cyclohaler, gelatin, and 60 for 4 sec42.70[54]
QuercetinO/W emulsification via a phase inversion technique followed by SDTristearin and phosphatidylcholineNGI, Aerolizer, #3 gelatin, and 60 for 4 sec20.5 ± 3.30[55]
BudesonideO/W emulsification via a phase inversion technique followed by SDPluronic F-68 and Compritol 888MSLI, Aerolizer, #3 HPMC, and 60 for 4 sec21.1 ± 0.60[56]

Biopolymer based microparticles
BudesonideCation induced gelation method followed by LPSodium alginate, deacetylated chitosan, Pluronic F-68, and mannitolACI, Rotahaler, #3 HPMC, and 60 for 5 sec60.09 ± 0.01[57]
BudesonideCation induced gelation method followed by LPSodium alginate, deacetylated chitosan, Pluronic F-68, and mannitolACI, Rotahaler, #3 HPMC, and 60 for 5 sec56.18 ± 0.01[58]

Miscellaneous microparticles
Beclomethasone dipropionate ultrafine particlesMicrofluidic antisolvent precipitation followed by homogenization and SDNAMSLI, Aerolizer, #3 HPMC, and 60 for 4 sec68.39[59]
Salbutamol sulphate sonocrystallized microparticlesUltrasonicationIsopropyl alcoholACI, Rotahaler, gelatin, and 28.3 for 10 sec44.21 ± 1.30[60]
Salbutamol sulfateMechanofusion Process (dry coating processes)MgStTSI, monodose inhaler device, #3 HPMC, and 60 for 4 sec75.4 ± 1.00[61]
Β-EstradiolSDLactose and leucine (6% w/w)ACI, Spinhaler, #2 gelatin, and 60
TSI, Spinhaler, #2 gelatin, and 60
73.4 ± 1.00
85.0 ± 0.50
[62]

SD: spray drying; co-SD: closed spray drying; SFD: spray freeze drying; LP: lyophilization; PCL: poly(ε-caprolactone); CS: cholesterol; DPPC: dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine; MgSt: magnesium stearate.