Table 5: Microspheres inhaled formulation along with their key findings.

DrugMethod of preparationMajor ingredientAssembly, device, capsules, and flow rate (L/min)Percentage of FPFReference

Microspheres
LevofloxacinSDChitosan and glutaric acidNGI, HandiHaler, #3 gelatin, and 60 for 4 sec32.3 ± 4.0[65]
Montelukast sodiumSDXyloglucanACI, Rotahaler, HPMC, and 60 for 4 sec43.8[66]
RifampicinSE followed by FDPLGANGI and 30 for 10 sec52.00[67]
Salbutamol sulfateRESalbutamol sulfate coated by 2% MgSt, polycaprolactone, and PVATSI, Rotahaler, #3 gelatin, and 6015.8 ± 1.5[68]
CisplatinEmulsification and ionotropic gelation methodChitosanTSI, Rotahaler, #3 HPMC, and 6034.4 ± 2.4[69]

SD: spray drying; FD: freeze drying; RE: rotary evaporation; SE: solvent evaporation; PLGA: poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid); MgSt: magnesium stearate; PVA: poly(vinyl alcohol).