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At the request of the authors, this article has been retracted. Yves Leroy of the Ecole Normale Supérieure was missing from the author list and was instead listed in the Acknowledgements. Prof. Leroy was the major contributor and supervised the first author, and the article was submitted without his knowledge.

View the full Retraction here.


  1. C. Liu and Y. Shi, “Initiation of triangle zones by delamination, shear, and compaction at the front of fold-and-thrust belts,” Journal of Earthquakes, vol. 2016, Article ID 6302546, 21 pages, 2016.
Journal of Earthquakes
Volume 2016, Article ID 6302546, 21 pages
Research Article

Initiation of Triangle Zones by Delamination, Shear, and Compaction at the Front of Fold-and-Thrust Belts

1Key Laboratory of Computational Geodynamics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
2Laboratoire de Géologie, CNRS-UMR 8538, École Normale Supérieure, Paris, France

Received 21 July 2015; Accepted 16 December 2015

Academic Editor: Youshun Sun

Copyright © 2016 Chang Liu and Yaolin Shi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The interest of this paper is to investigate the initiation of triangle zones at the front of fold-and-thrust belts by analyzing the virtual velocity fields in triangle wedges. It allows achieving five collapse mechanisms by delamination, shear, and compaction of competing for the formation of triangle zones as follows. The first mechanism is the classical Coulomb shear thrust. The second is delamination at the frontal part of the décollement with straight back thrust, while the third is delamination with curvy back thrust. The fourth is the combination of ramp with Coulomb shear and shear-enhanced compact fault, while the fifth is the combination of the exchanging motion on the ramp and thrust. The dominating mechanism in the formation of triangle zones relies on the competition of the least upper bound of each mechanism when subjected to tectonic force. The controlling factors of the competition are discovered as follows: the frictional characters and cohesion of horizontal décollements and thrust, the slope of the topography of accretion wedge, and the thickness and rock density of the front toe of accretion wedge.