Table of Contents
Journal of Ecosystems
Volume 2013, Article ID 316709, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/316709
Research Article

Short-Term Photochemical and Biological Unreactivity of Macrophyte-Derived Dissolved Organic Matter in a Subtropical Shallow Lake

1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia, Instituto de Pesquisas Hidráulicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501970 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
2Instituto de Pesquisas Hidráulicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501970 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

Received 7 May 2013; Revised 5 July 2013; Accepted 7 July 2013

Academic Editor: Wen-Cheng Liu

Copyright © 2013 Ng Haig They et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. G. Wetzel, “Gradient-dominated ecosystems: sources and regulatory functions of dissolved organic matter in freshwater ecosystems,” Hydrobiologia, vol. 229, no. 1, pp. 181–198, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. H. Lauster, P. C. Hanson, and T. K. Kratz, “Gross primary production and respiration differences among littoral and pelagic habitats in northern Wisconsin lakes,” Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 1130–1141, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. K. M. Docherty, K. C. Young, P. A. Maurice, and S. D. Bridgham, “Dissolved organic matter concentration and quality influences upon structure and function of freshwater microbial communities,” Microbial Ecology, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 378–388, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. M. W. Amon and R. Benner, “Bacterial utilization of different size classes of dissolved organic matter,” Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 41–51, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. L. Bracchini, A. Cózar, A. M. Dattilo et al., “The role of wetlands in the chromophoric dissolved organic matter release and its relation to aquatic ecosystems optical properties. A case of study: katonga and Bunjako Bays (Victoria Lake; Uganda),” Chemosphere, vol. 63, no. 7, pp. 1170–1178, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. U. Münster and R. J. Chróst, “Origin, composition, and microbial utilization of dissolved organic matter,” in Aquatic Microbial Ecology, J. Overbeck and R. J. Chróst, Eds., pp. 8–46, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  7. D. O. Hessen, “Dissolved organic carbon in a humic lake: effects on bacterial production and respiration,” Hydrobiologia, vol. 229, no. 1, pp. 115–123, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. J. Lindell, W. Granéli, and L. J. Tranvik, “Enhanced bacterial growth in response to photochemical transformation of dissolved organic matter,” Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 195–199, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. A. Moran and R. G. Zepp, “Role of photoreactions in the formation of biologically labile compounds from dissolved organic matter,” Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1307–1316, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Bertilsson and L. J. Tranvik, “Photochemically produced carboxylic acids as substrates for freshwater bacterioplankton,” Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 885–895, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. V. F. Farjalla, A. M. Anesio, S. Bertilsson, and W. Granéli, “Photochemical reactivity of aquatic macrophyte leachates: abiotic transformations and bacterial response,” Aquatic Microbial Ecology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 187–195, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. P. Pérez, M. M. Diaz, M. A. Ferraro, G. C. Cusminsky, and H. E. Zagarese, “Replicated mesocosm study on the role of natural ultraviolet radiation in high CDOM, shallow lakes,” Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 118–123, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. M. Amado, V. F. Farjalla, F. D. A. Esteves, R. L. Bozelli, F. Roland, and A. Enrich-Prast, “Complementary pathways of dissolved organic carbon removal pathways in clear-water Amazonian ecosystems: photochemical degradation and bacterial uptake,” FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 8–17, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. G. Ribblett, M. A. Palmer, and D. W. Coats, “The importance of bacterivorous protists in the decomposition of stream leaf litter,” Freshwater Biology, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 516–526, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. A. Snyder and M. P. Hoch, “Consequences of protist-stimulated bacterial production for estimating protist growth efficiencies,” Hydrobiologia, vol. 341, no. 2, pp. 113–123, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. N. Rooney and J. Kalff, “Interactions among epilimnetic phosphorus, phytoplankton biomass and bacterioplankton metabolism in lakes of varying submerged macrophyte cover,” Hydrobiologia, vol. 501, pp. 75–81, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H.-T. Ng, D. da Motta Marques, E. Jeppesen, and M. Søndergaard, “Bacterioplankton in the littoral and pelagic zones of subtropical shallow lakes,” Hydrobiologia, vol. 646, no. 1, pp. 311–326, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L. O. Crossetti, L. S. Cardoso, V. L. M. Callegaro et al., “Influence of the hydrological changes on the phytoplankton structure and dynamics in a subtropical wetland-lake system,” Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia, vol. 19, pp. 315–329, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  19. C. R. Fragoso Jr., D. M. L. M. Marques, W. Collischonn, C. E. M. Tucci, and E. H. van Nes, “Modelling spatial heterogeneity of phytoplankton in Lake Mangueira, a large shallow subtropical lake in South Brazil,” Ecological Modelling, vol. 219, no. 1-2, pp. 125–137, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. C. Ceballos and M. L. Rodrigues, “Estimativa de insolação mediante satélite geoestacionário: resultados preliminares,” in Proceedings of 15th Congresso Brasileiro de Meteorologia, INPE, São Paulo, Brazil, 2008.
  21. R. G. Wetzel and G. E. Likens, Limnological Analyses, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 2000.
  22. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation, Standard Methods For the Examination of Water and Wastewater, American Public Health Associatio, Washington, DC, USA, 20th edition, 1999.
  23. F. J. H. Mackereth, J. Heron, and J. F. Talling, Water Analysis: Some Revised Methods For Limnologists, Freshwater Biological Association, Ambleside, UK, 2nd edition, 1989.
  24. D. J. Strome and M. C. Miller, “Photolytic changes in dissolved humic substances,” Verhandlungen der Internationalen Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie, vol. 20, pp. 1248–1254, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  25. J. R. Helms, A. Stubbins, J. D. Ritchie, E. C. Minor, D. J. Kieber, and K. Mopper, “Absorption spectral slopes and slope ratios as indicators of molecular weight, source, and photobleaching of chromophoric dissolved organic matter,” Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 955–969, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. Aas, M. M. Lyons, R. Pledger, D. L. Mitchell, and W. H. Jeffrey, “Inhibition of bacterial activities by solar radiation in nearshore waters and the Gulf of Mexico,” Aquatic Microbial Ecology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 229–238, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. Massana, J. M. Gasol, P. K. Bjørnsen et al., “Measurement of bacterial size via image analysis of epifluorescence preparations: description of an inexpensive system and solutions to some of the most common problems,” Scientia Marina, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 397–407, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. L. J. R. Kepner Jr. and J. R. Pratt, “Use of fluorochromes for direct enumeration of total bacteria in environmental samples: past and present,” Microbiological Reviews, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 603–615, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. Liu, F. B. Dazzo, O. Glagoleva, B. Yu, and A. K. Jain, “CMEIAS: a computer-aided system for the image analysis of bacterial morphotypes in microbial communities,” Microbial Ecology, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 173–194, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Norland, “The relationship between biomass and volume of bacteria,” in Handbook of Methods in Aquatic Microbial Ecology, P. F. Kemp, B. F. Sherr, E. B. Sherr, and J. J. Cole, Eds., pp. 339–345, Lewis, Chelsea, Mich, USA, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  31. D. C. Simon and F. Azam, “A simple, economical method for measuring bacterial protein synthesis rates in sea water using 3H-leucine,” Marine Microbial Food Webs, vol. 6, pp. 107–109, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  32. D. Kirchman, “Measuring bacterial biomass production and growth rates from leucine incorporation in natural aquatic environments,” in MarIne Microbiology—Methods In Microbiology, J. H. Paul, Ed., pp. 227–237, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 30th edition, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  33. H. L. Golterman, R. S. Clymo, and M. A. M. Ohnstad, Methods for Physical and Chemical Analysis of Fresh Waters, Blackwell Publishing Company, London, UK, 2nd edition, 1978.
  34. P. Del Giorgio, “Rapid and precise determination of dissolved oxygen by spectrophotometry: evaluation of interference from color and turbidity,” Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 1148–1154, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. P. A. del Giorgio, J. J. Cole, and A. Cimbleris, “Respiration rates in bacteria exceed phytoplankton production in unproductive aquatic systems,” Nature, vol. 385, no. 6612, pp. 148–151, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. A. del Giorgio and J. J. Cole, “Bacterial growth efficiency in natural aquatic systems,” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, vol. 29, pp. 503–541, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. R Development Core Team, R: A Language and Environment For Statistical Computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, 2011, http://www.R-project.org/.
  38. H. J. de Lange, D. P. Morris, and C. E. Williamson, “Solar ultraviolet photodegradation of DOC may stimulate freshwater food webs,” Journal of Plankton Research, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 111–117, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. K. Kalinowska, “Bacteria, nanoflagellates and ciliates as components of the microbial loop in three lakes of different trophic status,” Polish Journal of Ecology, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 19–34, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. A. Gates, “Quantitative importance of ciliates in the planktonic biomass of lake ecosystems,” Hydrobiologia, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 233–238, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. K. Hamdy and O. R. Noyes, “Formation of methyl mercury by bacteria,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 424–432, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. Ravichandran, “Interactions between mercury and dissolved organic matter—a review,” Chemosphere, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 319–331, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. G. M. Ferrari, “Influence of pH and heavy metals in the determination of yellow substance in estuarine areas,” Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 89–100, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. A. M. Anesio, J. Theil-Nielsen, and W. Granéli, “Bacterial growth on photochemically transformed leachates from aquatic and terrestrial primary producers,” Microbial Ecology, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 200–208, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. M. Anesio, W. Granéli, G. R. Aiken, D. J. Kieber, and K. Mopper, “Effect of humic substance photodegradation on bacterial growth and respiration in lake water,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 71, no. 10, pp. 6267–6275, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. P. Seitzinger, H. Hartnett, R. Lauck et al., “Molecular-level chemical characterization and bioavailability of dissolved organic matter in stream water using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry,” Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. D. Wehr, J. Petersen, and S. Findlay, “Influence of three contrasting detrital carbon sources on planktonic bacterial metabolism in a mesotrophic lake,” Microbial Ecology, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 23–35, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. O. Holm-Hansen, E. W. Helbling, B. B. Prézelin, and R. C. Smith, “Polyethylene bags and solar ultraviolet radiation,” Science, vol. 259, no. 5094, pp. 534–535, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. K. A. Kuehn, M. J. Lemke, K. Suberkropp, and R. G. Wetzel, “Microbial biomass and production associated with decaying leaf litter of the emergent macrophyte Juncus effusus,” Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 862–870, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. E. M. Gross, S. Hilt, P. Lombardo, and G. Mulderij, “Searching for allelopathic effects of submerged macrophytes on phytoplankton—state of the art and open questions,” Hydrobiologia, vol. 584, no. 1, pp. 77–88, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. G. Mulderij, E. H. van Nes, and E. van Donk, “Macrophyte-phytoplankton interactions: the relative importance of allelopathy versus other factors,” Ecological Modelling, vol. 204, no. 1-2, pp. 85–92, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. Q. L. Wu, G. Zwart, J. Wu, M. P. Kamst-van Agterveld, S. Liu, and M. W. Hahn, “Submersed macrophytes play a key role in structuring bacterioplankton community composition in the large, shallow, subtropical Taihu Lake, China,” Environmental Microbiology, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 2765–2774, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. N. H. They, D. M. Marques, and R. S. Souza, “Lower respiration in the littoral zone of a subtropical shallow lake,” Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 3, p. 434, 2012. View at Google Scholar