Table of Contents
Journal of Ecosystems
Volume 2013, Article ID 840295, 12 pages
Research Article

Evaluation of the Ecological Impact of Human Settlement on the Water Quality of Lower Cross River, Nigeria

Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Environmental Management, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Uyo, PMB 1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State 52027, Nigeria

Received 27 June 2013; Revised 28 August 2013; Accepted 29 August 2013

Academic Editor: Wen-Cheng Liu

Copyright © 2013 B. J. Oribhabor et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The ecological impact of human settlement on the water quality of Lower Cross River, Nigeria was evaluated. The physical and chemical conditions of the river water were determined from January to August, 2011. Three stations comprising Itu in Akwa Ibom State with intense human activities (station 2), its upstream (without human settlement) at Cross River State (station 1) and the downstream (station 3) were sampled. The Parametric One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) indicated that of the 17 physical and chemical parameters determined, only water level and COD were found to be significantly different ( ) among stations. The spatial variations in the level of significant correlation of the physical and chemical parameters among the stations and the higher level of interrelationship in downstream station 2 and 3 than station 1 could be attributed to inputs resulting from human settlement. Comparison between some parameters with Standard Organization of Nigeria, and World Health Organization maximum permitted levels for drinking water indicated that the water was not polluted. However, the BOD and COD concentrations of greater than 2 mg/L and 20 mg/L respectively were indicative of pollution.