Table of Contents
Journal of Ecosystems
Volume 2014, Article ID 294867, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/294867
Research Article

Litter Production, Decomposition, and Nutrient Release in Subalpine Forest Communities of the Northwest Himalaya

1Herbal Research and Development Institute, Mandal, Gopeshwar, Uttarakhand 246401, India
2Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, University of Horticulture and Forestry, Mehalchauri, Chamoli, Uttarakhand 246431, India
3High Altitude Plants Physiology Research Centre, HNB Garhwal (Central) University, Srinagar, Garhwal, Uttarakhand 246174, India
4GB Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Kosi-Katarmal, Almora, Uttarakhand 243643, India

Received 11 July 2014; Revised 30 September 2014; Accepted 23 October 2014; Published 18 November 2014

Academic Editor: Nicholas Clarke

Copyright © 2014 Vinod K. Bisht et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Gairola, R. S. Rawal, and U. Dhar, “Patterns of litterfall and return of nutrients across anthropogenic disturbance gradients in three subalpine forests of West Himalaya, India,” Journal of Forest Research, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 73–80, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. I. Rai, B. Adhikari, and G. S. Rawat, “Mass foliar damage at subalpine-timberline ecotone in Western Himalaya due to extreme climatic events,” American Journal of Climate Change, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 104–107, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  3. C. E. Prescott, L. L. Blevins, and C. Staley, “Litter decomposition in British Columbia forests: controlling factors and influences of forestry activities,” Journal of Ecosystems and Management, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 44–57, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  4. X. Xu and E. Hirata, “Decomposition patterns of leaf litter of seven common canopy species in a subtropical forest: N and P dynamics,” Plant and Soil, vol. 273, no. 1-2, pp. 279–289, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. T. Christensen, “Wood litter fall in relation to abscission, environmental factors and the decomposition cycle in Danish Oak forest,” Oikos, vol. 26, pp. 187–195, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  6. S. Y. Yu, F. G. Jian, S. C. Guang, S. X. Jin, P. C. Li, and P. Lin, “Litterfall, nutrient return, and leaf-litter decomposition in four plantations compared with a natural forest in subtropical China,” Annals of Forest Science, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 465–476, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. N. Rawat, B. P. Nautiyal, and M. C. Nautiyal, “Annual nutrients budget for the grazed and ungrazed sites of an alpine expanse in North-West Himalaya, India,” The Environmentalist, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 54–66, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. N. Rawat, B. P. Nautiyal, and M. C. Nautiyal, “Litter decomposition rate and nutrient release from different litter forms in a Himalayan alpine ecosystem,” Environmentalist, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 279–288, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. P. M. Vitousek, D. R. Turner, W. J. Parton, and R. L. Sanford, “Litter decomposition on the mauna loa environmental matrix, Hawai'i: patterns, mechanisms, and models,” Ecology, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 418–429, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. K. Sangha, R. K. Jalota, and D. J. Midmore, “Litter production, decomposition and nutrient release in cleared and uncleared pasture systems of central Queensland, Australia,” Journal of Tropical Ecology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 177–189, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. Aerts, “Climate, leaf litter chemistry and leaf litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems: a triangular relationship,” Oikos, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 439–449, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. J. Swift, O. W. Heal, and J. M. Anderson, Decomposition in Terrestrial Ecosystems, vol. 5 of Studies in Ecology, Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, UK, 1979.
  13. G. K. Ganjegunte, L. M. Condron, P. W. Clinton, M. R. Davis, and N. Mahieu, “Decomposition and nutrient release from radiata pine (Pinus radiata) coarse woody debris,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 187, no. 2-3, pp. 197–211, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Sarjubala Devi and P. S. Yadava, “Wood and leaf litter decomposition of Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Roxb. in a tropical deciduous forest of Manipur, Northeast India,” Current Science, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 243–246, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. V. Yadav and G. Malanson, “Progress in soil organic matter research: litter decomposition, modelling, monitoring and sequestration,” Progress in Physical Geography, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 131–154, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. B. Hoorens, R. Aerts, and M. Stroetenga, “Does initial litter chemistry explain litter mixture effects on decomposition?” Oecologia, vol. 137, no. 4, pp. 578–586, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. V. P. Upadhyay and J. S. Singh, “Decomposition of woody branch litter on an altitudinal transect in the Himalaya,” Vegetatio, vol. 64, no. 2-3, pp. 49–53, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. V. P. Upadhyay, J. S. Singh, and V. Meentemeyer, “Dynamics and weight loss of leaf litter in Central Himalayan forests: abiotic versus litter quality influences,” Journal of Ecology, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 147–161, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. B. S. Majila, G. C. Joshi, and C. P. Kala, “Patterns in litter fall and litter decomposition along an altitudinal gradient in the Binsar Wildlife Sanctuary, Central Himalaya,” International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 205–212, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. V. K. Bisht, C. P. Kuniyal, B. P. Nautiyal, and P. Prasad, “Spatial distribution and regeneration of Quercus semecarpifolia and Quercus floribunda in a subalpine forest of western Himalaya, India,” Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 443–448, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. P. K. Goel and R. K. Trivedi, Chemical and Biological Methods for Water Pollution, Soil and Plant Analysis, Environment Publications, Karad, India, 1st edition, 1992.
  22. E. Allen, Chemical Analysis of Ecological Material, Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, UK, 1974.
  23. S. R. Olsen, C. V. Cole, F. S. Watanabe, and L. A. Dean, “Estimation of available Phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate,” USDA Circuler 939, US Government Print Office, Washington, DC, USA, 1954. View at Google Scholar
  24. M. L. Jackson, Soil Chemical Analysis, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 1958.
  25. M. Witkamp and J. van der Drift, “Breakdown of forest litter in relation to environmental factors,” Plant and Soil, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 295–311, 1961. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. B. Jones, B. Wolf, and H. A. Mills, “Interpretation of results,” in Plant Analysis Handbook—A Practical Sampling, Preparation, Analysis and Interpretation Guide, Micro-Macro Publishing, Athens, Ga, USA, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  27. V. G. Panse and P. V. Sukuhatme, Statistical Methods for Agricultural Workers, ICAR, New Delhi, India, 1985.
  28. S. K. Tripathi, A. Sumida, H. Shibata et al., “Leaf litterfall and decomposition of different above- and belowground parts of birch (Betula ermanii) trees and dwarf bamboo (Sasa kurilensis) shrubs in a young secondary forest in Northern Japan,” Biology and Fertility of Soils, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 237–246, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. R. Pandey, G. Sharma, S. K. Tripathi, and A. K. Singh, “Litterfall, litter decomposition and nutrient dynamics in a subtropical natural oak forest and managed plantation in Northeastern India,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 240, no. 1–3, pp. 96–104, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. V. Meentmeyer, E. O. Box, and R. Thompson, “World patterns and amounts of terrestrial plant litter production,” Bioscience, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 125–128, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. J. R. Bray and E. Gorham, “Litter production in forests of the world,” Advances in Ecological Research, vol. 2, pp. 101–157, 1964. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. B. Berg and C. McClaugherty, Plant Litter: Decomposition, Humus Formation, Carbon Sequestration, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2003.
  33. A. Gallardo and J. Merino, “Leaf decomposition in two Mediterranean ecosystems of southwest Spain: influence of substrate quality,” Ecology, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 152–161, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. E. Pérez-Corona, M. C. Pérez Hernández, and F. B. de Castro, “Decomposition of alder, ash, and poplar litter in a Mediterranean riverine area,” Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, vol. 37, no. 7-8, pp. 1111–1125, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. G. van Geffen, M. P. Berg, and R. Aerts, “Potential macro-detritivore range expansion into the subarctic stimulates litter decomposition: a new positive feedback mechanism to climate change?” Oecologia, vol. 167, no. 4, pp. 1163–1175, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. K. Tripathi and K. P. Singh, “Abiotic and litter quality control during the decomposition of different plant parts in dry tropical bamboo savanna in India,” Pedobiologia, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 241–256, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. L. Alhamd, S. Arakaki, and A. Hagihara, “Decomposition of leaf litter of four tree species in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest, Okinawa Island, Japan,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 202, no. 1–3, pp. 1–11, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. V. Jamaludheen and B. M. Kumar, “Litter of multipurpose trees in Kerala, India: variations in the amount, quality, decay rates and release of nutrients,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. B. R. Taylor, W. F. J. Parsons, and D. Parkinson, “Decomposition of Populus tremuloides leaf litter accelerated by addition of Alnus crispa litter,” Canadian Journal of Forest Research, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 674–679, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. C. E. Prescott, “Decomposition and mineralization of nutrients from litter and humus,” in Nutrient Acquisition by Plants: An Ecological Perspective, H. BassiriRad, Ed., vol. 181 of Ecological Studies, pp. 15–41, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  41. P. Pande, Y. S. Rawat, and S. P. Singh, “Litter fall, decomposition and seasonal changes in nutrient concentration in decomposing litter in Arundinaria falcata in Oak zone on Central Himalaya. High altitude of the Himalaya—II, biodiversity,” Ecology ' Environment, vol. 2, pp. 415–426, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  42. G. Sjöberg, S. I. Nilsson, T. Persson, and P. Karlsson, “Degradation of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin in decomposing spruce needle litter in relation to N,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 1761–1768, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. Körner, Alpine Plant Life: Functional Plant Ecology of High Mountain Ecosystem, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2003.
  44. B. Berg and R. Laskowski, Litter Decomposition: A Guide to Carbon and Nutrient Turnover, Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 2006.
  45. S. K. Tripathi and K. P. Singh, “Nutrient immobilization and release patterns during plant decomposition in a dry tropical bamboo savanna, India,” Biology and Fertility of Soils, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 191–199, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus