Research Article | Open Access
A Decomposition of the Dual Space of Some Banach Function Spaces
We give a decomposition for the dual space of some Banach Function Spaces as the Zygmund space of the exponential integrable functions, the Marcinkiewicz space , and the Grand Lebesgue Space .
Let be a set of Lebesgue measure .
In this paper, we deal with the following issue. What is the difference between the dual space and the associate space of a Banach Function Space
If is a reflexive Banach Function Space, then the dual space is canonically isometrically isomorphic to the associate space [1, page 23]. On the other hand, for example, if we consider the Orlicz space of exponentially integrable functions, which is not reflexive, the associate space coincides with the Zygmund space , while the dual can be represented by where is the closure of with respect to the EXP norm (see [2, Chapter IV],  and also Corollary 3.4).
Our aim is to show that the decomposition for the dual space as in (1.2) holds in a more general setting: namely, if is a rearrangement invariant Banach Function Space on such that its fundamental function verifies then, where denotes the closure of in . We stress that, due to assumption (1.3), our argument is much shorter than the corresponding one, treated in Zaanen ([4, Section 70, Theorem 2, page 467]) in the more abstract setting of normed Köethe spaces. (See also [2, Chapter IV, Proposition 2.8 and Theorem 2.11]).
In Section 3, we consider our decomposition in the particular case of spaces, Marcinkiewicz spaces, and the Grand Lebesgue Spaces, specifying case by case the expression of the associate space.
Let be a set of Lebesgue measure and let be the set of all measurable functions, whose values lie in , finite a.e. in .
Definition 2.1. A mapping is called a Banach function norm if, for all in , for all constants , and for all measurable subsets , the following properties hold. for some constant , , depending on and , but independent of .
Definition 2.2. If is a Banach function norm, the Banach space
is called a Banach Function Space.
For each , define Recall that the simple functions are contained in every Banach Function Spaces .
Definition 2.3. If is a function norm, its associate norm is defined on by
Definition 2.4. Let be a function norm and let be the Banach Function Space determined by . Let be the associate norm of . The Banach Function Space determined by is called the associate space of .
In particular, from the definition of , it follows that the norm of a function in the associate space is given by
Definition 2.5. A function in a Banach Function Space is said to have absolutely continuous norm in if for every sequence satisfying a.e. The set of all functions in of absolutely continuous norm is denoted by . If , then the space itself is said to have absolutely continuous norm.
Definition 2.6. Let . The function
is called the distribution function of . The decreasing rearrangement of , is defined on by
where here we use the convention .
Two functions having the same distribution function are called equimeasurable.
Let us recall that a function norm is said to be rearrangement invariant (briefly, “r.i.”) if for every couple of equimeasurable functions. The Banach Function Space arising from a r.i. function norm is called a rearrangement-invariant space.
By , we denote the function given by The function is nonincreasing and verifies .
Definition 2.7. Let be a r.i. Banach Function Space determined by a function norm . For each , let be a set of measure . The fundamental function of , , is defined by
Definition 2.8. Let and , then the Zygmund space is the set of all measurable functions in for which the quantity
For and we will replace by .
With these notations, the usual space of the exponentially integrable functions corresponds to the Zygmund space and consists of all measurable functions in for which the quantity is finite.
All these spaces are particular cases of the Orlicz spaces.
Let be a right-continuous, increasing function, such that and , then the function defined by is called N function; it is a continuous, convex, increasing function such that and .
Definition 2.9. The Orlicz space consists of all measurable functions on for which there exists some such that
where stands for .
This is a Banach space with respect to the Luxemburg norm:
The Orlicz spaces are a standard example of rearrangement-invariant Banach Function Space: the associate space of is given by , where denotes the complementary function of , defined by Moreover, we notice that, for , , and , the Orlicz space associated reduces, respectively, to the spaces and to .
Definition 2.10. Given , the Lorentz space consists of all measurable functions in for which
The space - is known as the Marcinkiewicz space, and it is another example of r.i. Banach Function Space.
The quantity (2.16) is not a norm since the triangle inequality may fail; however, for , replacing with , we obtain a norm equivalent to (2.16).
In particular, for , in the case of a nonatomic measure space, (2.16) is equivalent to
Now, we recall the definitions of Grand and Small Lebesgue Spaces, introduced, respectively, in  and in .
Definition 2.11. Let and ; the Grand Lebesgue Space is the Banach Function Space of all measurable functions on such that
Notice that If and is its Hölder conjugate exponent, according to , the Small Lebesgue Space can be identified as the set of all measurable functions on such that is finite.
The Grand and Small Lebesgue Spaces are r.i. Banach Function Spaces .
Definition 2.12. A vector space V is the direct sum of its subspaces U and W, denoted by , if and only if Elements of the direct sum are representable uniquely in the form
Definition 2.13. Let be a Banach space and a vectorial subspace of . The orthogonal space of is
where is the duality inner product.
It is known that is a closed subspace of .
We conclude this section by recalling some classical results, which will be useful in the sequel.
Theorem 2.14 (Hölder's inequality ). Let be a Banach Function Space with associate space . If and , then is integrable and
Lemma 2.15 (see [1, Lemma 2.6, page 10]). In order that a measurable function belongs to the associate space , it is necessary and sufficient that is integrable for every in .
Theorem 2.16 (see [1, Theorem 2.7, page 10]). Every Banach Function Space coincides with its second associate space .
Theorem 2.17 (see [1, Theorem 2.9, page 13]). The associate space of a Banach Function Space is canonically isometrically isomorphic to a closed norm-fundamental subspace of the Banach space dual of .
Proposition 2.18 (see [1, Proposition 2.10, page 13]). If and are Banach Function Spaces and (continuous embedding), then (continuous embedding).
Theorem 2.19 (see [1, Theorem 3.11, page 18]). Let be a Banach Function Space. Then, .
Corollary 2.20. If , then .
Theorem 2.21 (see [1, Theorem 3.13, page 19]). The subspaces and coincide if and only if the characteristic function has absolutely continuous norm for every set of finite measure.
Theorem 2.22 (see [1, Corollary 4.2, page 23]). Let be a Banach Function Space. If contains the simple functions, then .
Theorem 2.23 (see [1, Corollary 4.3, page 23]). The Banach space dual of a Banach Function Space is canonically isometrically isomorphic to the associate space if and only if has absolutely continuous norm.
Theorem 2.24 (see [1, Theorem 5.5, page 67]). Let be a totally -finite nonatomic measure space and let be an arbitrary rearrangement-invariant space over . The following conditions on are equivalent: (i); (ii); (iii), where is the fundamental function of .
3. Main Results
In this Section, we establish a decomposition for the dual space of a r.i. Banach Function Space.
Theorem 3.1. Let be a rearrangement-invariant Banach Function Space on . For each , let be a subset of with and let be the fundamental function of .
If then the following decomposition holds.
Proof. Let , for all measurable sets in , we define the set function
which is -additive and absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure . Thus, has a locally integrable Radon-Nikodym derivative and
Since for all , it is
where is a constant. Hence, for all ,
By Lemma 2.15, it follows that .
To any , we can associate the functional By Hölder's inequality, belongs to , which is equivalent to thanks to Theorem 2.24.
Finally, let be defined by , then for all . Therefore, belongs to .
Hence, Since it is easily seen that and , subspaces of , verify , then the proof is complete.
Corollary 3.3. Let be an Orlicz space, then
Corollary 3.4. Let , then where denotes the closure of in .
Corollary 3.5. Let , be its Hölder conjugate exponent and , then
Proof. The Marcinkievicz space is the largest of all rearrangement-invariant spaces having the same fundamental function as (see ), which is
Moreover, the associate space of (see ) is, up to equivalence of norms, the Lorentz space .
Therefore, the statement easily follows by Theorem 3.1.
A decomposition of the dual of was also given in .
Corollary 3.6. Let , and , then
In the next theorem, we show the relation between a Banach Function Space and the dual of its associate space .
Theorem 3.7. Let be a Banach Function Space, then the following inclusion holds, with equality occurring if and only if the associate space of has absolutely continuous norm.
Proof. By Theorem 2.17 applied to the Banach Function Space , we may identify with a closed subspace of ; hence, Theorem 2.16 implies
Furthermore, if has absolutely continuous norm, that is , since every Banach Function Space contains the simple functions, by Theorem 2.22 applied to the space and by Theorem 2.16, we have .
On the other hand, if , then , and Theorem 2.23 yields that has absolutely continuous norm.
Remark 3.8. An example of a Banach Function Space verifying the proper inclusion in (3.18) is given by the Lebesgue space . In fact, if , then as confirmed by the fact that has not absolutely continuous norm.
- C. Bennett and R. Sharpley, Interpolation of Operators, Academic Press, 1988.
- M. M. Rao and Z. D. Ren, Theory of Orlicz Spaces, Pure and Applied Mathematics, vol. 146, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 1991.
- M. Carozza and C. Sbordone, “The distance to in some function spaces and applications,” Differential and Integral Equations, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 599–607, 1997.
- A. C. Zaanen, Integration, Completely Revised Edition of An Introduction to the Theory of Integration, North-Holland Publishing, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1967.
- T. Iwaniec and C. Sbordone, “On the integrability of the Jacobian under minimal hypotheses,” Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis, vol. 119, no. 2, pp. 129–143, 1992.
- A. Fiorenza, “Duality and reflexivity in grand Lebesgue spaces,” Collectanea Mathematica, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 131–148, 2000.
- C. Capone and A. Fiorenza, “On small Lebesgue spaces,” Journal of Function Spaces and Applications, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 73–89, 2005.
- M. Cwikel, “The dual of Weak ,” Annales de l'Institut Fourier, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 81–126, 1975.
Copyright © 2012 Claudia Capone and Maria Rosaria Formica. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.