Table of Contents
Journal of Geriatrics
Volume 2015, Article ID 564870, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/564870
Review Article

Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Clinical, Neuropsychological, and Radiological Phenotypes, Histopathological Correlates, and Described Genotypes: A Review

1Clinical Neurosciences, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore 560029, India
2Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore 560029, India
3Department of Neurochemistry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore 560029, India
4Department of Clinical Psychology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore 560029, India
5Department of Biostatistics, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore 560029, India

Received 12 August 2015; Revised 9 December 2015; Accepted 10 December 2015

Academic Editor: Stephen D. Ginsberg

Copyright © 2015 Thomas Gregor Issac et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Introduction. Vascular cognitive impairment is a common yet preventable cause for dementia. It needs high degree of suspicion and appropriate designing of investigatory tools to confirm diagnosis, identify comorbidities, and ascertain the areas of impairment. Commonly DSM-IV criterion is applied for diagnosis and detailed clinical and neuropsychological examination for identifying the specific phenotype is used. Early diagnosis using the mandatory criteria will help in early initiation of disease modifying treatment strategies which can result in partial reversal of vascular changes and arrest of progression. Patients with young onset disease might require genetic characterization for designing more aggressive treatment. Discussion and Conclusion. Dementias as such carry poor course and prognosis resulting in severe Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) for patients and caregivers. Therefore, it is mandatory to identify treatable and preventable causes so that man power loss can be reduced.