Table of Contents
Journal of Geological Research
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 791815, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/791815
Research Article

Methane Hydrate Distribution from Prolonged and Repeated Formation in Natural and Compacted Sand Samples: X-Ray CT Observations

1Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
2Office of Research and Development, National Energy Technology Laboratory, 626 Cochrans Mill Road, P.O. Box 10940, Pittsburgh, PA 15236, USA

Received 16 June 2011; Revised 12 August 2011; Accepted 13 August 2011

Academic Editor: Xuewei Liu

Copyright © 2011 Emily V. L. Rees et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. D. Sloan and C. A. Koh, Clathrate Hydrates of Natural Gases, CRC Press, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 2008.
  2. W. F. Waite, J. C. Santamarina, D. D. Cortes et al., “Physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments,” Reviews of Geophysics, vol. 74, no. 4, p. RG4003, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  3. K. Kvenvolden and T. McDonald, “Gas hydrates of the Middle America Trench, deep sea drilling project Leg 84,” in Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, R. Von-Huene and J. Aubouin, Eds., pp. 664–682, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, USA, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  4. P. G. Brewer, F. M. Orr, G. Friederich et al., “Deep-ocean field test of methane hydrate formation from a remotely operated vehicle,” Geology, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 407–410, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. T. Collett, M. Riedel, and J. Cochran, “Indian national gas hydrate program expedition 01 initial reports,” Tech. Rep., Indian Directorate General of Hydrocarbons, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  6. A. M. Trehu, F. R. Rack, and M. Chapman, “Drilling gas hydrates on hydrate ridge, cascadia continental margin,” in Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program Scientific Results Leg 204, Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, Tex, USA, 2006.
  7. G. K. Westbrook et al., “Proceedings ocean drilling program, initial reports,” Ocean Drilling Program, 146, 1994.
  8. L. M. Kraemer, R. M. Owen, and G. R. Dickens, “Lithology of the upper gas hydrate zone, blake outer ridge: a link between diatoms, porosity and gas hydrate,” in Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program Results, C. Paull, R. Matsumoto, and P. Wallace, Eds., pp. 229–236, Ocean Drilling Program, 2000.
  9. M. Riedel, T. S. Collett, M. J. Malone, and The Expedition 311 Scientists, “Cascadia margin gas hydrates,” in Proceedings of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition Reports, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Management International, 2006.
  10. S. R. Dallimore, T. Uchida, and T. Collett, “Results from Japex/Jnoc/Gsc mallik 2l-38 gas hydrate research well, mackenzie delta, northwest Territories, Canada,” Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin, no. 544, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  11. W. F. Waite, W. J. Winters, and D. H. Mason, “Methane hydrate formation in partially water-saturated Ottawa sand,” American Mineralogist, vol. 89, no. 8-9, pp. 1202–1207, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. W. J. Winters, I. A. Pecher, W. F. Waite, and D. H. Mason, “Physical properties and rock physics models of sediment containing natural and laboratory-formed methane gas hydrate,” American Mineralogist, vol. 89, no. 8-9, pp. 1221–1227, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Holland, P. Schultheiss, J. Roberts, and M. D. Geotek, “Observed gas hydrate morphologies in marine sediments,” in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Gas Hydrates, Vancouver, Canada, 2008.
  14. B. Tohidi, R. Anderson, M. B. Clennell, R. W. Burgass, and A. B. Biderkab, “Visual observation of gas-hydrate formation and dissociation in synthetic porous media by means of glass micromodels,” Geology, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 867–870, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. Katsuki, R. Ohmura, T. Ebinuma, and H. Narita, “Formation, growth and ageing of clathrate hydrate crystals in a porous medium,” Philosophical Magazine, vol. 86, no. 12, pp. 1753–1761, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. Katsuki, R. Ohmura, T. Ebinuma, and H. Narita, “Methane hydrate crystal growth in a porous medium filled with methane-saturated liquid water,” Philosophical Magazine, vol. 87, no. 7, pp. 1057–1069, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. Buchanan, A. K. Soper, H. Thompson et al., “Search for memory effects in methane hydrate: structure of water before hydrate formation and after hydrate decomposition,” The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 123, no. 16, p. 164507, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. D. Lee, R. Susilo, and P. Englezos, “Kinetics of structure H gas hydrate,” Energy and Fuels, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 1008–1015, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. Ohmura, M. Ogawa, K. Yasuoka, and Y. H. Mori, “Statistical study of clathrate-hydrate nucleation in a water/hydrochlorofluorocarbon system: search for the nature of the ‘memory effect’,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 107, no. 22, pp. 5289–5293, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. M. Rodger, “Methane hydrate: melting and memory,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 912, pp. 474–482, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. P. Schroeter, R. Kobayashi, and M. A. Hildebrand, “Hydrate decomposition conditions in the system H2S-methane-propane,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 361–364, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. P. Servio and P. Englezos, “Morphology of methane and carbon dioxide hydrates formed from water droplets,” AIChE Journal, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 269–276, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. T. Uchida, T. Ebinuma, and H. Narita, “Observations of CO2-hydrate decomposition and reformation processes,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 217, no. 1, pp. 189–200, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. T. J. Kneafsey, L. Hailong, W. William et al., “Examination of core samples from the mount Elbert gas hydrate stratigraphic test well, Alaska North Slope: effects of retrieval and preservation,” Marine and Petroleum Geology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 381–393, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  25. R. Boswell, K. Rose, T. S. Collett et al., “Geologic controls on gas hydrate occurrence in the Mount Elbert prospect: MilnePoint Unit, Alaska North Slope,” Marine and Petroleum Geology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 589–607, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. T. S. Collett, M. W. Lee, W. F. Agena et al., “Permafrost associated natural gas hydrate occurrences on the Alaska North Slope,” Marine and Petroleum Geology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 279–294, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. K. Rose, R. Boswell, and T. Collett, “BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert gas hydrate stratigraphic test well: coring operations, core sedimentology and lithostratigraphy,” Marine and Petroleum Geology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 311–331, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. T. J. Kneafsey and G. J. Moridis, “Methane hydrate dissociation by depressurization in a mount Elbert Sandstone sample: experimental observations and numerical modeling,” in Proceedings of the Arctic Technology Conference, Houston, Tex, USA, 2011.
  29. T. Uchida, S. Takeya, E. M. Chuvilin et al., “Decomposition of methane hydrates in sand, sandstone, clays and glass beads,” Journal of Geophysical Research: B, vol. 109, no. 5, pp. B05206–12, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. Y. Seol and T. J. Kneafsey, “Methane hydrate induced permeability modification for multiphase flow in unsaturated porous media,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 116, no. B8, Article ID B08102, 15 pages, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  31. G. C. Cho, J. Dodds, and J. C. Santamarina, “Particle shape effects on packing density, stiffness, and strength: natural and crushed sands,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 132, no. 5, pp. 591–602, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. S. Parent and P. R. Bishnoi, “Investigations into the nucleation behaviour of methane gas hydrates,” Chemical Engineering Communications, vol. 144, pp. 51–64, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. Israelachvili, Intermolecular and Surface Forces, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1992.
  34. D. Grasso, K. Subramaniam, M. Butkus, K. Strevett, and J. Bergendahl, “A review of non-DLVO interactions in environmental colloidal systems,” Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 17–38, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. J. C. Stevens, B. A. Baldwin, A. Graue, G. Ersland, J. Husebo, and J. J. Howard, “Measurements of hydrate formation in sandstone,” Petrophysics, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 67–73, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. A. Bagherzadeh, I. L. Moudrakovski, J. A. Ripmeester, and P. Englezos, “Magnetic resonance imaging of gas hydrate formation in a bed of silica sand particles,” Energy and Fuels, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 3083–3092, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. M. E. Torres, T. Collett, K. Rose, J. C. Sample, W. Agena, and E. Rosenbaum, “Pore fluid geochemistry from the Mount Elbert gas hydrate stratigraphic test well, Alaska North Slope,” Marine and Petroleum Geology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 332–342, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Gupta, T. J. Kneafsey, G. J. Moridis, Y. Seol, M. B. Kowalsky, and E. D. Sloan, “Composite thermal conductivity in a large heterogeneous porous methane hydrate sample,” Journal of Physical Chemistry: B, vol. 110, no. 33, pp. 16384–16392, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  39. T. J. Kneafsey, L. Tomutsa, G. J. Moridis et al., “Methane hydrate formation and dissociation in a partially saturated core-scale sand sample,” Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, vol. 56, no. 1–3, pp. 108–126, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. B. Clennell, M. Hovland, J. S. Booth, P. Henry, and W. J. Winters, “Formation of natural gas hydrates in marine sediments 1. Conceptual model of gas hydrate growth conditioned by host sediment properties,” Journal of Geophysical Research: B, vol. 104, no. 10, pp. 22985–23003, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. T. R. Carlisle and G. W. Hodgson, “The formation of natural-gas hydrates in sedimentary rock,” Chemical Geology, vol. 49, no. 1–3, pp. 371–383, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. P. Hoekstra and R. D. Miller, “On the mobility of water molecules in the transition layer between ice and a solid surface,” Journal of Colloid And Interface Science, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 166–173, 1967. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. P. Linga, C. Haligva, S. C. Nam, J. A. Ripmeester, and P. Englezos, “Gas hydrate formation in a variable volume bed of silica sand particles,” Energy and Fuels, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 5496–5507, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. Y. P. Handa, “Effect of hydrostatic pressure and salinity on the stability of gas hydrates,” Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 2652–2657, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. P. Servio and P. Englezos, “Measurement of dissolved methane in water in equilibrium with its hydrate,” Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 87–90, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. Y. S. Kim, B. D. Lim, J. E. Lee, and C. S. Lee, “Solubilities of carbon dioxide, methane, and ethane in sodium chloride solution containing gas hydrate,” Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 1351–1354, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus