Table of Contents
Journal of Geological Research
Volume 2012, Article ID 294093, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/294093
Research Article

Fold-to-Fault Progression of a Major Thrust Zone Revealed in Horses of the North Mountain Fault Zone, Virginia and West Virginia, USA

U.S. Geological Survey, 926A National Center, Reston, VA 20192, USA

Received 14 March 2012; Accepted 22 May 2012

Academic Editor: David T. A. Symons

Copyright © 2012 Randall C. Orndorff. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. R. Kulander and S. L. Dean, “Structure and tectonics of central and southern Appalachian Valley and Ridge and Plateau provinces, West Virginia and Virginia,” American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, vol. 70, no. 11, pp. 1674–1684, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. E. K. Rader and W. J. Perry Jr., “Reinterpretation of the geology of Brocks Gap, Rockingham County, Virginia,” Virginia Division of Mineral Resources, Virginia Minerals, vol. 22, pp. 37–45, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  3. B. R. Kulander and S. L. Dean, “The North Mountain-Pulaski fault system and related thrust sheet structure,” in Geometrics and Mechanisms of Thrusting, with Special Reference to the Appalachians, G. Mitra and S. Wojtal, Eds., vol. 222, pp. 107–118, Geological Society of America, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  4. S. L. Dean, B. R. Kulander, and P. Lessing, “The structural geometry and evolution of foreland thrust systems, northern Virginia: Alternative interpretation and reply,” Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol. 102, pp. 1442–1445, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  5. M. A. Evans, “The structural geometry and evolution of foreland thrust systems, northern Virginia,” Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 339–354, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. W. Giles, “Geology of Little North Mountain in northern Virginia and West Virginia,” Journal of Geology, vol. 35, pp. 32–57, 1927. View at Google Scholar
  7. C. Butts and R.S. Edmundson, “Geology of little North Mountain in contributions to Virginia geology—part II,” Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Bulletin, vol. 51, pp. 163–179, 1939. View at Google Scholar
  8. C. Butts and R. S. Edmundson, “Geology and mineral resources of Frederick County,” Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Bulletin, vol. 80, 142 pages, 1966. View at Google Scholar
  9. S. L. Dean, B. R. Kulander, and P. Lessing, “Geology of the Hedgesville, Keedysville, Shepherdstown, and Williamsport quadrangles, Berkeley and Jefferson Counties,” West Virginia Geological Economic Survey Map-WV31, scale 1:24,000, 1987.
  10. D. H. Doctor, R. C. Orndorff, R. A. Parker, D. J. Weary, and J. E. Repetski, “Geologic map of the White Hall quadrangle, Frederick County, Virginia and Berkeley County,” West Virginia. U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 2010-1265, scale 1:24,000, 2010.
  11. E. K. Rader, R. C. McDowell, T. M. Gathright III, and R. C. Orndorff, “Geologic map of Clarke, Frederick, Page, Shenandoah, and Warren Counties, Virginia,” Lord Fairfax Planning District. Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Publication 143, scale 1:100,000, 1996.
  12. R. C. Orndorff and J. B. Epstein, “A structural and stratigraphic excursion through the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia,” U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 94-573, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  13. R. C. Orndorff, J. B. Epstein, and R. C. McDowell, “Geologic map of the Middletown quadrangle, Frederick, Shenandoah, and Warren Counties, Virginia,” U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-1803, scale 1:24,000, 1999.
  14. J. B. Epstein, R. C. Orndorff, and E. K. Rader, “Middle Ordovician Stickley Run Member (new name) of the Martinsburg Formation, Shenandoah Valley, northern Virginia,” US Geological Survey Bulletin, vol. 2135, pp. 1–13, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. C. McDowell, “Preliminary geologic map of the Mountain Falls quadrangle, Frederick and Shenandoah Counties, Virginia, and Hampshire County, West Virginia,” U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 95-620, scale 1:24,000, 1995.
  16. W. R. Brent, “Geology and mineral resources of Rockingham County,” Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Bulletin, vol. 76, p. 174, 1960. View at Google Scholar
  17. R. C. Orndorff, “Geologic map of the Muddy Creek drainage basin, Singers Glen quadrangle, Rockingham County, Virginia,” U.S. Geological Survey Open-file Report 95-629, scale 1:24,000, 1995.
  18. M. J. Bartholomew, “Structural evolution of the Pulaski thrust system, southwestern Virginia,” Geological Society of America Bulletin, vol. 99, pp. 491–510, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  19. E. K. Rader, “Geology of the Staunton, Churchville, Greenville, and Stuarts Draft quadrangles, Virginia,” Virginia Division of Mineral Resources Report of Investigations 12, scale 1:24,000, 1967.
  20. S. E. Boyer and D. Elliott, “Thrust systems.,” American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, vol. 66, no. 9, pp. 1196–1230, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. P. Schultz, “Horses in fensters of the Pulaski thrust sheet, southwestern Virginia: structure, kinematics, and implications for hydrocarbon potential of the Eastern Overthrust Belt,” US Geological Survey Bulletin, vol. 1839, pp. A1–A13, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. B. Willis, “Mechanics of Appalachian structures,” U.S. Geological Survey Annual Report 13, 1893. View at Google Scholar
  23. R. D. Hatcher Jr., W. A. Thomas, P. A. Geiser, A. W. Snoke, S. Mosher, and D. W. Wiltschko, “Alleghanian orogin,” in The Appalachian-Ouachita orogen in the United States, R. D. Hatcher Jr., W. A. Thomas, and G. W. Viele, Eds., pp. 233–318, Geological Society of America, The Geology of North America F-2, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  24. L. D. Harris and R. C. Milici, “Characteristics of thin-skinned style of deformation in the Southern Appalachians, and potential hydrocarbon traps,” U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, no. 1018, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. Suppe, Principles of Structural Geology, Prentice-Hall, Englewood, NJ, USA, 1985.
  26. S. Mitra, “Structural models of faulted detachment folds,” American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, vol. 86, no. 9, pp. 1673–1694, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. E. A. Erslev, “Trishear fault-propagation folding,” Geology, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 617–620, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. E. A. Erslev and K. R. Mayborn, “Multiple geometries and modes of fault-propagation folding in the Canadian thrust belt,” Journal of Structural Geology, vol. 19, no. 3-4, pp. 321–335, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus