Table of Contents
Journal of Hormones
Volume 2014, Article ID 190347, 17 pages
Review Article

Systematic Literature Review of the Epidemiology of Nongenetic Forms of Hypogonadism in Adult Males

1Product Value Strategy Consulting, Optum, Eden Prairie, MN 55344, USA
2Global Health Outcomes, Merck & Co., Inc., West Point, PA 19486, USA
3School of Pharmacy, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
4Epidemiology, Optum, Ann Arbor, MI 48108, USA
5Men’s Health Boston, Brookline, MA 02445, USA
6Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
7Boolean Research Consulting, Westmount, QC, Canada
8Robert Hague Centre for Diabetes and Endocrinology, Barnsley Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Barnsley S752EP, UK
9Department of Human Metabolism, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2RX, UK

Received 20 May 2014; Accepted 23 June 2014; Published 22 July 2014

Academic Editor: Jack van Honk

Copyright © 2014 Victoria Zarotsky et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study summarizes the literature on the prevalence, incidence, and proportion of patients receiving treatment for male hypogonadism and a systematic literature search was performed for articles published in the last 20 years. Of the 97 studies identified, 96 examined the prevalence, 2 examined the incidence, and 4 examined the proportion of males with hypogonadism patients receiving treatment. Based on studies conducted in Europe and USA, the prevalence of hypogonadism in the general population ranged from 2.1% to 12.8% of middle-aged to older men, with an estimated incidence of 12 new cases per 1,000 person-years. Prevalence was higher among patients with comorbid conditions, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Approximately 10–12% of men with hypogonadism were receiving testosterone treatment. This literature review suggests that there is potentially a significant burden of hypogonadism in the general population. Burden seems to increase with age and in the presence of certain disease conditions. Data suggests that many hypogonadal men who may benefit from testosterone replacement are not receiving treatment. This may be the result of underdiagnosis of the disease, lack of awareness by patients or physicians, irregularities surrounding the diagnostic criteria, and deficiency of long-term safety studies.