Table of Contents
Journal of Materials
Volume 2013, Article ID 261304, 5 pages
Research Article

Evidence for Stable High-Temperature Ferromagnetism in Fluorine-Treated C60

1Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, Picatinny, NJ 07806, USA
2Department of Physics, Hunter College and Graduate Center, City University of New York, 696 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA

Received 13 November 2012; Accepted 2 January 2013

Academic Editor: Zhongfang Chen

Copyright © 2013 Rajen Patel and Frank J. Owens. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


It is shown by magnetic field dependent ac susceptibility, magnetic force microscopy, and ferromagnetic resonance that exposure of C60 to fluorine at 160°C produces a stable ferromagnetic material with a Curie temperature well above room temperature. The exposure to fluorine is accomplished by decomposing a fluorine-rich polymer, trifluorochloroethylene [F2C–CFCl]n, which has C60 imbedded in it. Based on previous experimental observations and molecular orbital calculations, it is suggested that the ferromagnetism is arising from crystals of C60–F.