Table of Contents
Journal of Materials
Volume 2013, Article ID 678361, 20 pages
Review Article

Recent Developments in the X-Ray Reflectivity Analysis for Rough Surfaces and Interfaces of Multilayered Thin Film Materials

Center for Supports to Research and Education Activities, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan

Received 31 December 2012; Revised 6 June 2013; Accepted 24 June 2013

Academic Editor: Te-Hua Fang

Copyright © 2013 Yoshikazu Fujii. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


X-ray reflectometry is a powerful tool for investigations on rough surface and interface structures of multilayered thin film materials. The X-ray reflectivity has been calculated based on the Parratt formalism, accounting for the effect of roughness by the theory of Nevot-Croce conventionally. However, in previous studies, the calculations of the X-ray reflectivity often show a strange effect where interference effects would increase at a rough surface. And estimated surface and interface roughnesses from the X-ray reflectivity measurements did not correspond to the TEM image observation results. The strange result had its origin in a used equation due to a serious mistake in which the Fresnel transmission coefficient in the reflectivity equation is increased at a rough interface because of a lack of consideration of diffuse scattering. In this review, a new accurate formalism that corrects this mistake is presented. The new accurate formalism derives an accurate analysis of the X-ray reflectivity from a multilayer surface of thin film materials, taking into account the effect of roughness-induced diffuse scattering. The calculated reflectivity by this accurate reflectivity equation should enable the structure of buried interfaces to be analyzed more accurately.